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| Age of Empires Strategy Guide for PC|

| Author: Jim Chamberlin |

| Last Time Updated: 08/20/99 |

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Any questions, e- mail me at: jjchamber4@aol.com

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Table of Contents

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I. Introduction

II. Game Modes

III. The Villagers

IV. The Resources

V. The Technologies

VI. War!

VII. Creating Your Own Scenarios

VIII. Assyrians

IX. Babylonians

X. Chosens

XI. Egyptians

XII. Greeks ***** Still Under Construction *****

XIII. Hittites ***** Still Under Construction *****

XIV. Minoans

XV. Persians ***** Still Under Construction *****

XVI. Phoenicians

XVII. Shangs ***** Still Under Construction *****

XVIII. Sumerians

XIX. Yamato

XX. The Buildings

XXI. The Units ***** Still Under Construction *****

XXII. Extra Stuff ***** Still Under Construction *****

XXIII. Credits

XXIV. Farewell!

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I. Introduction

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It isn't totally impossible to make a walkthrough for Age of Empires.

First, you would have to list all contingencies within the game. This,

along with all the other things you'd have to mention, if you were writing

a walkthrough for Silent Hill (PSX), for example, would take a lot of

time. Perhaps I'll attempt to do it when I get really, really bored.

However, I'm not at that stage, yet. Anyway, this is a general strategy

guide for a remarkable game for its type. Any questions or additions,

e- mail me at: jjchamber4@aol.com.

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II. Game Modes

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_Campaign_

Basically, it's a series of scenarios which attempt to show the development

of a given culture. This is a good place to start for a new AoE player.

It allows you to understand and experiment with the basics of the games.

_Scenario_

This is one, single scenario. Each of the scenarios has a certain set of

instructions has a certain set of instructions. You must fulfill the

requirements to win the scenario.

_Random Map_

This is just a randomly generated map. You can change the victory

condition, so there is a specific way you can win.

_Death Match_

Well, you are given a certain amount of resources, and you must fight until

everyone is dead.

_Multiplayer_

It's a random map or scenario, for example. The whole Multiplayer thing

is explained a little more in depth in the manual. I just don't feel like

elaborating on it.

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III. The Villagers

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TASKS

_BUILDER_

This person constructs buildings and farms.

_FARMER_

This person gathers food from a Farm. The food from the Farm is

deposited at either the Town Center or at the Granary. Researching

Domestication, the Plow, and Irrigation increases a Farm's production.

_FISHERMAN_

This person gathers food from the fishing spots. The food is deposited

at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit.

_FORAGER_

This person gathers food from the Berry Bushes. The food is

deposited at either the Town Center or at the Granary.

_GOLD MINER_

This person mines for Gold at the Gold Mines. The gold is deposited at

either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. Researching Gold Mining

increases gold mining efficiency, and Coinage increases Gold production.

_HUNTER_

This person hunts for food from: Alligators, Lions, Gazelles, and

Elephants. The food is deposited at either the Town Center or at the

Storage Pit.

_REPAIRMAN_

This person repairs boats and buildings.

_STONE MINER_

This person miner Stone from Stone Mines. The stone is deposited at

either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. Researching Stone Mining and

Siegecraft increases stone mining efficiency.

_VILLAGER_

This person is either in combat or doing nothing. Researching Siegecraft

allows Villagers to destroy walls and towers, and Jihad increases their

combat ability.

_WOODCUTTER_

This person chops down trees for wood. The wood is deposited at either

the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. Researching Woodworking,

Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increases woodcutting efficiency.

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IV. The Resources

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_Wood_

This is used to construct boats, buildings, and some military units.

_Food_

This is used to create villagers, train and upgrade military units,

research technologies, and advance to the next age. In AoE, food

represents Fish, Fruits, Nuts, Roots, Wild Grains, and Berries.

_Gold_

This is used to research technologies in later ages, create some military

units, advance to the Iron Age, and pay tribute to other civilizations.

In AoE, Gold represents Gold, Silver, Bronze, and Copper.

_Stone_

This is used to build and upgrade towers and walls, and research some

technologies. In AoE, Stone represents both Stone and Clay.

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V. The Technologies

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_Storage Pit Technologies_

TOOLWORKING

Age: Tool Age

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.

Cost: 100 Food

Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units.

Note: The first metals put to use were those found in a relatively pure

state on the earth's surface, including gold, silver, and copper. Gold

could be worked in its natural state. Experimentation with it eventually

suggested electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver) and copper could

also be hammered into useful shapes. Learning how to extract copper from

ore and shape it into tools was an important milestone in the rise of

civilization because it opened the door first to making bronze and then

to making iron. Cast copper tools were an important advance over stone

tools, but were too soft to have a long, useful life. The discovery of

bronze, made by alloying a small amount of tin with copper, ushered in a

2000- year Bronze Age. Cast bronze tools dramatically increased the

efficiency of workers. Bronze weapons were superior to those made of

stone and copper. Armies equipped with bronze swords, spears, and

arrowheads had a critical advantage over more poorly equipped armies.

METALWORKING

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched Toolworking.

Cost: 200 Food, 120 Gold

Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units.

Note: The discovery and use of iron to make tools and weapons was one of

the most important advances in civilization. Some historians consider the

use of iron to be one of the distinguishing characteristics separating

civilization from barbarism because the new tools were less brittle, could

hold better edges, and held edges for a longer time without resharpening.

Most importantly, iron ore was much easier to locate than copper and tin,

making iron tools cheaper and more readily available. By 1000 B.C., iron

tools were being made that were as good as the best ones of bronze; by 500

B.C., iron had largely supplanted bronze from Europe and Asia. The expanse

and scarcity of bronze had restricted its use to the elite and wealthy.

Iron tools and weapons were available to nearly everyone.

METALLURGY

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched Toolworking and Metalworking.

Cost: 300 Food, 180 Gold

Benefit: This provides a +3 attack for your hand- to- hand units.

Note: You must research Metallurgy before you can upgrade to the

Cataphract. The use of iron spread throughout the Mediterranean, Middle

East, and Asia during the first millenium B.C., and some areas became

especially adept at the new science. Certain campgrounds added to the

molten metal increased the strength of the resulting tools. New forging

techniques also resulted in better tools. The best iron tool workers made

superior weapons that were an important advantage in battle.

BRONZE SHIELD

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.

Cost: 150 Food, 180 Gold

Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Helepolis, and

missile weapons.

Note: The shield was probably the first piece of military equipment

developed to protect a warrior. The earliest were made of wood or wood

and hide, and were in various shapes. They were carried in the hand or on

the forearm and used to ward off blows or missiles in battle. Shield

designs and materials evolved to keep up with advances in weapons. Wood

and hide shields were easy to smash with bronze weapons, so bronze shields

were developed. Bronze shields also provided better defense against

missiles. Arrows, especially with metal points, were prone to lodge in

wooden shields. This increased the weight of the shield and made it more

unwieldy. Roman legions threw spears at barbarian formations mainly so

they would pierce and weigh down the enemy's shield just before closing.

Arrows and other missiles deflected off bronze shields without penetration.

IRON SHIELD

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched the Bronze Shield.

Cost: 200 Food, 320 Gold

Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Heleoplis, and

missile weapons.

Note: The iron shield replaced the bronze shield when swords and other

weapons of iron became common. Iron shields were not only expensive to

make, but also more effective in stopping all hand- to- hand and missile

weapons. The basic iron shield remained in use until firearms made

personal shields on the battlefield obsolete.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR ARCHERS

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.

Cost: 100 Food

Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.

Note: Soldiers have sought ways to protect themselves in combat since the

beginnings of warfare. Long before the use of metals, leather was

employed to make helmets and body armor that could stop, or at least

soften, blows from blunt and edged weapons. Leather was easy to work

with, it was light and not overly restrictive of movement, it could be

fitted to the wearer, and it was usually plentiful and inexpensive.

Leather remained an important material for body armor throughout the

Bronze Age due to the high cost of metal armor. It wasn't until far into

the Iron Age that metal armor was available for common soldiers.

SCALE ARMOR FOR ARCHERS

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched Leather Armor for Archers.

Cost: 125 Food, 50 Gold

Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.

Note: The use of metals to make weapons was matched by using metals to

make better armor. Among the first improvements in widespread use were

breastplates and greaves of bronze. The breastplate protected the torso

while greaves protected the legs below the knee. Both of these items

protected only the front of the soldier, saving the weight and cost that

all- around protection would entail. Breastplates and greaves were worn

by hoplites of the phalanx, for example, during the glory years of

Greece. When used together with a large shield and bronze helmet, they

left little of the soldier's body exposed to attack. Bronze armor was an

example of scale armor, or plate armor, in which metal plates provided

protection.

CHAIN MAIL FOR ARCHERS

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched Leather Armor and Scale Armor for Archers.

Cost: 150 Food, 100 Gold

Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.

Note: Chain mail was a type of body armor made of iron circlets woven

together into a cloak. The interlocking chains of iron protected the body

somewhat from weapons that slashed or pounded. Chain mail was also

flexible and allowed more freedom of body movement than armor made of

metal plates. The disadvantages of chain mail were that it required a lot

of care, was heavy, and was expensive to make. Chain mail was worn only

by wealthy or powerful individuals who could purchase or demand its

manufacture.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR CAVALRY

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.

Cost: 125 Food

Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.

Note: The same as above.

SCALE ARMOR FOR CAVALRY

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched Leather Armor for Cavalry.

Cost: 150 Food, 50 Gold

Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.

Note: The same as above.

CHAIN MAIL FOR CAVALRY

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched Leather and Scale Armor for Cavalry.

Cost: 175 Food, 100 Gold

Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.

Note: The same as above.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR INFANTRY

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.

Cost: 75 Food

Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.

Note: The same as above.

SCALE ARMOR FOR INFANTRY

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched Leather Armor for Infantry.

Cost: 100 Food, 50 Gold

Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.

Note: The same as above.

CHAIN MAIL FOR INFANTRY

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and

researched Leather and Scale Armor for Infantry.

Cost: 125 Food, 100 Gold

Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.

Note: The same as above.

_Market Technologies_

WHEEL

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.

Cost: 175 Food, 75 Wood

Benefits: Villager speed is increased by 30%.

Note: You must research the Wheel before you can build a Chariot or

Chariot Archer. The use of the wheel for transport was discovered in

Sumeria sometime after 3400 B.C. and derived from the potter's wheel that

appeared first. The Sumerians learned that in a small cart, a donkey

could pull a load equal to three times what it could carry on its back.

The wheel revolutionized transport and had an important impact on the

battlefield as well. By the Bronze Age, chariot archers were dominating

warfare on the open plains. The wheel was apparently used only for

children's toys in ancient America, probably because of the rough

geography and the lack of an animal like the ox or horse.

WOODWORKING

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.

Cost: 120 Food, 75 Wood

Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for missile

weapons.

Note: The small stone blades that characterized the New Stone Age

(neolithic period) made possible finer techniques in many areas, including

woodworking. The larger and more unweildy stone tools of the past were

capable of crude cutting and carving only. Better woodworking improved

other tools and weapons, making possible the bow and arrow and spear

thrower.

ARTISANSHIP

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,

and researched Woodworking.

Cost: 170 Food, 120 Gold

Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for missile

weapons.

Note: The discovery and use of first copper and then the much more useful

bronze tools and weapons was a dramatic leap in technology. Bronze,

especially, posessed a hardness, strength, and ability to hold an edge

that far surpassed the best stone tools, making it much more useful when

working with stone, wood, hides, meat, and other materials. Cultures that

used bronze had a decided economic and military advantage over those that

did not.

COINAGE

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,

and researched Gold Mining.

Cost: 200 Food, 100 Gold

Benefits: This provides you with free tribute and increases your Gold

Mining productivity by 25%.

Note: The first true coins were minted in ancient Lydia, now part of

modern Turkey. These first coins were made from electrum, a naturally

ocurring malleable alloy of gold and silver. Coins, and money in general,

proved an important facilitator of trade and economic progress. Money

acted as a storehouse of value, a medium of exchange, and a standard of

value, as it continues to do today. Following the conquest of the Persian

Empire, the concept of coinage or as adopted by the Greeks and spread by

them throughout the Hellenistic world.

CRAFTSMANSHIP

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,

and researched Woodworking and Artisanship.

Cost: 240 Food, 200 Wood

Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and +1 range for missile

weapons.

Note: You must research Craftsmanship before you can upgrade to the

Helepolis. The discovery of inexpensive ways to make iron was as great a

technological leap over bronze making as bronze was over stone. Iron

surpassed bronze in every critical characteristic- hardness, strength, and

the ability to hold an edge before needing to be resharpened- Plus one.

Iron was much easier to acquire than were copper and tin, making it

available to all cultures and for all uses. Historians consider the

ability to make and use iron ore one of the distinctions between barbaric

and civilized culture.

DOMESTICATION

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary, and

researched Market.

Cost: 200 Food, 50 Wood

Benefits: You receive a 75% increase of food production to your farms.

Note: The revolution in agriculture involved both the development of

animals. The ability to control and manage herds of milk- and meat-

producing animals also served to free humans from the drudging and

desperation of continual hunting and gathering. Herding did not lead

necessarily to a sedentary village life, however. The need to find pasture

often meant that herding societies remained nomadic, at least for part of

the year. Domesticated sheep and goats first appear in the archaelogical

record around 7500 B.C. in the Zagros Mountains to the east of the Tigro

and Euphrates River valleys. Cattle were domesticated around 600 B.C. in

both the Sahara and Egypt, perhaps near simultaneously. Domestication of

cattle alone may have been for responsible for a doubling of world human

population in a few generations.

STONE MINING

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.

Cost: 100 Food, 50 Stone

Benefits: Your stone mining is increased by +3.

Note: Wood for building was scarce in most places where civilizations

first arose. Vast forests just did not exist in these predominately arid

regions. The principle building material for common uses was mud bricks,

sun- dried at first and then fire- baked. In some areas important

structures such as temples, palaces, tombs, and fortifications were built

of stone when it was available. Much information about ancient Egypt was

preserved because of the permanence of stone. Equilalent structures in

Mesopotamia collapsed into mounds of earth after many centuries of neglect

and weathering. Acquiring non- wood building materials through brick

making or quarrying was the object of Stone Mining.

GOLD MINING

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.

Cost: 120 Food, 100 Wood

Benefits: The gold mining production is increased by +3.

Note: Gold washed down the hills and mountains was probably the 1st metal

with which humans experimented. It was sufficiently soft and pure to be

fashioned easily into objects of beauty for adornment and trade. The

value of gold remained high as populations increased because of demand for

it continued to exceed supply. Because of this value, the trail of gold

was followed back to the source of the alluvial nuggets. Gold mining was

developed to obtain ore from which the pure metal could be extracted.

Many of the most beautiful objects that survive from antiquity are made of

gold, including hundreds of items from the Egyptian Pharaoh, Tutankhamen's

tomb.

SIEGECRAFT

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,

and researched Stone Mining.

Cost: 190 Food, 100 Stone

Benefits: Villagers can destroy walls and towers, and your stone mining

ablity is increased by +3.

Note: You must research Siegecraft before you can upgrade to the Heavy

Catapult. Despite the written records and depictions of cities and

fortifications being stormed with the aid of siege equipment, starvation

was the only certain and effective way to take strongholds before the

gunpowder age. The defender of a strong position, with adequate troops,

food, and water, had all the advantages. Physical assault of strongholds

was a difficult proposition accompanied regularly only by those armies

posessing siegecraft- the necessary equipment, resolve, leadership, elan,

discipline, and skill. Examples from ancient history were the army of

Alexander the Great that conducted 20 sieges over a ten- year period, most

after the fall of the Persian Empire; the Hittites, the Assyrians, and the

Romans.

PLOW

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,

and researched Domestication.

Cost: 250 Food, 75 Wood

Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms.

Note: The first agriculturists planted seeds by hand using digging sticks

to open the ground. The invention of the plow made it possible to more

easily prepare farmland for planting. The plow ripped open long rows for

seeding, burying unwanted plants and cutting unwanted roots in the

process. When pulled behind domesticated animals, such as oxen, food

production per farmer and per acre again increased. The plow has

continued to evolve since ancient times. For example, U.S. President

Thomas Jefferson invented an improved version.

IRRIGATION

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,

and researched Domestication and the Plow.

Cost: 300 Food, 100 Wood

Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms.

Note: One of the key steps in the agricultural revolution was

understanding and managing irrigation. Observation of the natural world

revealed eventually the relationship between planted seeds, good soils,

sunlight, water, and resultant crops. Large- scale irrigation in both

Mesopotamia and Egypt turned the rich but arid soils near the rivers into

rich farmlands and made possible the rise of the great civilizations on

earth. Building the dams and channels to irrigate these lands required

sophistication of government, construction, and engineering not seen

previously in any society.

_Government Center Technologies_

ALCHEMY

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Government Center.

Cost: 250 Food, 200 Gold

Benefits: You receive a +1 attack ability for your siege and missile

weapons.

Note: The beginnings of chemistry can be traced back to ancient attempts

to make gold and silver out of base metals, to find a universal cure for

disease, and to discover secrets of prolonging life. The experiments and

secrecy of the alchemists gave them an aura of mystery and magic.

Alchemists were both feared and sought out for help. In an ancient world

of little scientific understanding, mystery, and magic had power.

ARCHITECTURE

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Government Center.

Cost: 150 Food, 175 Wood

Benefits: Building construction is increased by +33% and the hit points of

your buildings and walls are increased by +20%.

Note: The art and science of designing and constructing buildings arose

from the practical need to provide first shelter, then storage for food

reserves, and then defenses for both. One of the specializations that

appeared in the first towns was the builder whose skills and techniques

continue to evolve today. Builders and architects worked with the

materials available to construct buildings and fortifications. Over time

new techniques of architecture improved the efficiency, strength, and

utility of construction.

ARISTOCRACY

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Government Center.

Cost: 175 Food, 150 Gold

Benefits: The speed of your Academy units is increased by +25%.

Note: The Aristocracy was a privileged class, usually hereditary, that

arose within many cultures. Aristocrats generally derived their power

from control of farmland and the attendant infrastructure of people,

towns, and manufacturing- supported food production. They kept power at

the pleasure of the ruler, as long as they acceded to his wishes.

Aristocrats may also have had military responsibility, especially when on

the frontier of the kingdom or empire. In many cultures the aristocrats

provided the senior officer corps or elite troops of the army. Commanders

of the armies and navies of Athens, for example, were elected from among

the aristocracy of landowners.

BALLISTICS

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Government Center.

Cost: 200 Food, 50 Gold

Benefits: It increases the accuracy of missile and siege weapons.

Note: You must research Ballistics before you can upgrade to the Ballista

Tower. The use of missile weapons for war presented challenges that

hunting with the bow did not. Hunters stalked game and shot ideally at a

stationary target. War targets were often armored, partially shielded, or

moving. Effective use of the bow and other missile weapons required

tactics and training. Bowmen of low skill were taught to fire in barrages

at an area rather than at specific targets. Better- trained archers

learned to shoot for specific parts of the target, including the horses of

chariots or cavalry. Ballistics, the study of projectile flight, was

derived from the name of an ancient missile weapon, the Ballista.

ENGINEERING

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Government Center.

Cost: 200 Food, 100 Wood

Benefits: The range for your siege weapons is increased by +2.

Note: You must research Engineering before you can upgrade to the

Juggernaught. Ancient engineers were able to build remarkable structures

even though the raw materials and tools with which they could work were

often limited. The Egyptian pyramids, for example, were built of multiton

stone blocks using only the fulcrum and lever, wedge, ramp, sledge, and

rollers. The pyramid builders of 2600 B.C. used tools made only of wood

and copper. Advances in engineering were slow and based primarily on

practical experience until advances in mathematics, especially from the

Greeks, led to the new experimentation and techniques.

NOBILITY

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Government Center.

Cost: 175 Food, 120 Gold

Benefits: There is a hit point bonus of +15% for Cavalry units, Chariot,

Chariot Archer, Horse Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer.

Note: Within ancient tribal groups an early hierarchical structure

centered around the strongman, who probably took power in a physical

contest, led the group, and enjoyed special privileges. As populations

increased, the hierarchy expanded. Layers of nobility, a class of society

privileged due to fighting prowess or wealth, grew between the stronghold,

or king, and common people and slaves. The nobility served as

administrators and sub- commanders of the army. Examples of nobility were

the Persian satraps, who ruled provinces of the Persian Empire, and

Alexander the Great's Companion's, who commanded parts of his army and

formed the core of his heavy cavalry squadrons.

WRITING

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Government Center.

Cost: 200 Food, 75 Gold

Benefits: You share exploration with allies.

Note: The advance of writing is benchmark technology often used to separate

those cultures that were civilized from those that were barbaric. The key

importance of writing is that it allowed information to be stored and

passed on easily, thereby accelerating the accumulation and spread of

knowledge. Writing is believed to have been invented between 4000 and

3000 B.C. in Sumeria. The first writing was in simple pictures called

pictograms that gradually evolved into symbols representing the picture.

Egyptian hieroglyphics first appeared between 3300 and 3100 B.C., and are

thought to have been inspired by cuneiform, the Sumerian symbolic writing.

Writing appeared in China after 1600 B.C.

_Temple Technologies_

POLYTHEISM

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Temple.

Cost: 120 Gold

Benefits: Your priests move +40% faster.

Note: The first religions embraced a multitude of gods, each associated

with one aspect of life. There might have been a sun god, a moon god, a

god of the forest, a god of the river, and so on. The multitude of gods

was useful in understanding how the world worked and in directing petition

and prayer for specific help and relief. The existence of multipple gods

increased the power of priests because each god had special needs and

abilities that needed interpretation. The ancient Egyptians, for example,

worshipped around 2000 gods. Many of these were any local deities, but

others were held sacred throughout the country.

MONOTHEISM

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Temple.

Cost: 350 Gold

Benefits: Your priests can convert enemy priests and buildings (except for

Town Centers and Wonders.)

Note: The belief that there is only one God has evolved from the Persian

religion of Zoroastrianism down through Judaism to many of the more

popular religions of today. Whether monotheism is an advancement or not

is a subjective question. The widespread popularity over time and the

fervor of adherents indicates that monotheistic religions have more

successfully met the requirements of a religion than other beliefs that

have fallen aside.

MYSTICISM

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Temple.

Cost: 120 Gold

Benefit: Your Priests' hit points are doubled.

Note: Mysticism was a spiritual discipline that sought to achieve contact

with gods or other perceived realities through contemplation, trances, or

meditation. It was induced or enhanced by drugs in some cases, and it was

part of many ancient beliefs. For religions seeking to explain the great

unknown, the apparent ability to communicate through media unknown to the

average person was a powerful selling point. Because peopledream every

night, it was a logical step to believe that a few members of the group

could somehow make sense of dreams or see through the confusion to

communicate with another dimension.

JIHAD

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Temple.

Cost: 120 Gold

Benefits: It increases the attack, speed, and hit points of villagers, but

decreases their gathering efficiency.

Note: The word jihad can mean a crusade or struggle, and comes from the

holy war of Islam directed against all that defied the word of God as

written in the Koran. The equivalent of jihad can occur in any society

brought to a peak of emotion by religious fervor or other means. The

value of the jihad to society is that the people caught up in the emotion

of the enterprise place their best interests, even their lives, second to

the purpose of the crusade. The jihad was especially effective at a most

desperate time when survival of the group hung in the balance.

FANATICISM

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Temple.

Cost: 150 Gold

Benefits: Your Priests rejuvenate 50% faster after converting a unit.

Note: You must research Fanaticism before you can upgrade to Legion.

Religion evolved to provide a spiritual foundation and understanding to

life once humans became sufficiently intelligent to ponder the great

terrifying questions of our existence. A disturbing byproduct of the

spread of religion was fanaticism- the intense, unquestioning devotion to

the ideas and leadership of other humans. Fanatics were capable of ant

act, even at great risk to their lives, and were especially dangerous

enemies in war.

ASTROLOGY

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Temple.

Cost: 150 Gold

Benefits: Your Priests convert enemy units 30% faster.

Note: Ancient observers of the stars and the heavens noted the correlation

between the sun, the seasons, and the success of crops. The study of

celestial events was an early step in the attempt to understand and

control the uncertainties of life and became an important part of many

early religions. The sun god, Ra, for example, was the most powerful of

the Egyptian gods. Priests who could determine the start and end of the

growing seasons, foretell the phases of the moon, and predict terrifying

eclipses greatly enhanced their power in society. The power of astrologers

increased when their subjects believed that the influence of the stars and

planets on human affairs could be divined from celestial positions and

aspects.

AFTERLIFE

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and

Temple.

Cost: 275 Gold

Benefit: The range of your Priests is increased by +3.

Note: An important question that ancient religions attempted to address

was what happens when people die. Many religions held that there was an

afterlife, a place or existence that continued once a person's time on

earth ended. The promise of an attractive afterlife was a powerful

inducement for behavior that conformed to the goals of a particular

religion. Fervent believers in an afterlife might give up their lives to

serve their gods. Well- considered religions that offered a good return

for acceptance, including an attractive afterlife, grew more in power and

influence than those that did not. Christianity, for example, promised

everlasting life to everyone of faith, not just to the rich buried in great

tombs with servants and goods.

=====================================

VI. War!

=====================================

War is something that is bound to happen. There isn't a whole lot that I

can say in this spot. For more war, try the hardest game setting, my

favorite. Everyone has their own tactics they like to use, so that's up

to you. You shouldn't sacrafice your entire army at once. Hold some back

as a backup, when the others are getting hammered. If the other army is

still beating the Hel* out of you, retreat. Come back to the S.O.B.'s and

take 'em out. War is something that there isn't really one way to do.

Every group that you'll encounter will have certain weapons that you don't,

unless you cheat, that will give them a distinct advantage. You must look

at all of your things and come up of something that they don't, and use it

against them. You must expose their weakness!!

=====================================

VII. Creating Your Own Scenarios

=====================================

What exactly could I say in this section? Well, be creative. Try not to

cheat your opponents too badly. For example, don't build a fortification

surrounding your opponents, so they can't even move. Try to build some

scenarios which are simple, just like the scenarios already within the

game. But the point is to be creative! If you would like to learn more

on this subject, check out the manual. I don't really feel like writing

too much in this section, since it's pretty self- explainable.

=====================================

VIII. Assyrians

=====================================

(1800 to 600 B.C.)

The only thing that I can say to introduce the Assyrians is the fact that

they were very powerful and fierce. They have legendary barbarity, as well.

_Location_

Assyria was located in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) along the Tigris

River. It was settled after Sumer to the south but was dominated by the

Sumerians both culturally and politically during its early history.

_Capital_

The capital of Assyria was Ashur for most of its existence, but moved to

other sites when kings built new palaces. Other important cities and

capitals in the Assyrian homeland were Nineveh, Arbela, Khorsabad, and

Nimrud.

_Rise to Power_

Around 2000 B.C., Assyria was invaded by Semitic barbarians called the

Armorites. By 1800 B.C. an Armorite king of the Assyrians had established

control over most of northern Mesopotamia. Their power was short- lived

in this period, however, due first to the rise of Babylonia under Hammurabi

and then the rise of the Mitanni in modern Syria.

The period 1363 to 1000 B.C. was the Middle Assyrian Empire. Several

strong kings reasserted Assyrian independence and then began encroaching

on neighboring empires. The Assyrians avoided destruction during the

catastrophe of 1200 B.C., perhaps they were already embracing the new

military tactics and weapons that the older kingdoms were not. In the

political vacuum of the ancient dark age, the Arryrians prospered. By

1076 B.C. Tiglathpileser I had reached the Mediterranean to the west.

The New Assyrian Empire, 1000 to 600 B.C. was the peak of their conquests.

Their empire stretched from the head of the Persian Gulf, around the

Fertile Crescent through Damascus, Phoenicia, Palestine, and into Egypt as

far south as Thebes. Their northwestern border was the Taurus Mountains

of modern Turkey. Other than the vestiges of what had once been the Minoan

(Crete), Mycenean (Greece), and Hittite (Turkey) cultures, all areas of

pre- catastrophe civilization in the West were ruled by Assyria.

_Economy_

The Assyrian economy was based on agriculture and herding, but the Assyrians

also benefited by being situated astride some important trade routes.

They are not remembered as traders in their own right, perhaps only tax

collectors on traders went through. During the New Empire period, they

profited from the taxes and tribute they collected from their various

provinces and vassal states, including even Egypt for a few years.

_Religion and Culture_

The Assyrian religion was heavily influenced by that of its Mesopotamian

predecessors, mainly Sumeria. The chief god of the Assyrians was Ashur,

from whom both their culture and capital take their names. Their temples

were large zaggurats built of mud bricks, like their neighbors to the south.

The principal activity of the rich was hunting from chariots, appropriate

for such a war- like culture. Despite their fearsome reputation, the

Assyrians embraced civilization. They wrote using cuneiform and decorated

their cities leberally with reliefs, painted stonework, and sculpture.

_Government_

The king was the head administrator of government, supported by local

provincial governors. The palace was the site of government. Advisors

consulted the omens before important decisions were made.

Provinces and vassal cities were required to pay taxes and tribute in the

form of food, goods, gold, labor, military supplies, and soldiers for the

army. An extensive network of roads and grain depots were built during

the New Empire to speed communication and armies moving to trouble spots.

_Architecture_

The Assyrians built on a large and lavish scale, using mostly mud bricks,

but also stone that was more readily available than it was further south.

Several New Empire kings built extensive palaces and decorated them with

the booty of war and the tribute of vassal states. Palaces were also

decorated with painted stone reliefs, extensive gardens, and man0 made

streams. A common decorative fixture was the LAMASSU- a winged hybrid

creature, part bull and part man.

_Military_

The first Assyrian armies were peasant spearmen. Following a series of

military reforms around 800 B.C., however, they employed a standing army

of conscripts and professionals. This army was better armed, armored,

and supplied than most of its enemies, giving it important advantages.

The New Empire armies benefited from cheap iron used for improved swords

and armor.

The Assyrians were among the first to adopt the concept of the integrated

army made up of an infantry core for shock, supported by light missile

troops and a mobile wing of chariots, camelry, and cavalry. The army was

capable of fighting on the plains where chariots and then cavalry were

critical, as well as in rough terrain where horses and chariots had little

use. They campaigned regularly to the north and east against barbarians

that posed a threat. The elite of the army for many years were the

charioteers, followed by the cavalry when chariots bacame obsolete.

The Assyrians were accomplished at the art of capturing walled cities.

Their historical records recount numerous city assaults and the brutality

that followed. Inhabitants were either killed or sent to another corner

of the empire as slaves.

_Decline and Fall_

The brutal policies of subjugation and exorbitant demands for tribute and

taxes made the Assyrians unpopular masters. Despite the ferocity of their

reprisals, vassal states contnually revolted given an opportunity. Weaker

kings were unable to hold the empire together in the face of internal and

external pressure. In 612 B.C., the capital at Nineveh fell to a

coalition of Babylonians and Medes. The Babylonians were in revolt

(Babylon had been sacked in 648 B.C.) and the Medes (from modern western

Iran) were seeking retribution for past Assyrian invasions of their lands.

The last Assyrian army was defeated soon thereafter by the same coalition

and the Assyrians as a separate culture disappeared from the world's stage.

_Legacy_

The Assyrians are remembered from their boastful inscriptions and biblical

references as ferocious warriors. Whether they were significantly more

brutal than was normal for the time is unclear.

For several centuries, however, they were the greatest military power in

the civilized world. Their armies were innovative, and they appear to

have been among the first to use large bodies of cavalry effectively.

They certainly influenced the Persian armies that followed them.

They are not remembered for any significant advances in technology,

philosophy, the arts, or science. Their cities have been piles of rubble

for thousands of years now and have not given up fabulous treasures that

can compare with those of Egypt and Greece.

=====================================

IX. Babylonians

=====================================

(1900 to 539 B.C.)

The Mesopotamian city- state of Babylon twice expanded to become an

important world empire before being absorbed by Persia. Its two great

expansions were sufficiently remarkable to earn it a place in history

beside the two other great Mesopotamian cultures, the Sumerians and

Assyrians. Between its Old and New Empire periods, Babylonia devolved

back into a small but rich city- state that was captured occasionally by

its neighbors.

The predominate inhabitants of Babylon changed several times over its

existence, although the culture remained relatively constant and distinct.

The Amorites, the Kassites, and the Chaldeans were all Babylonians at

least once.

_Location_

The Babylonians took their name from their capital and only major city,

Babylon, located on the Euphrates River west of Sumeria and south of

Assyria. It was well- placed on the river for agriculture and for trade,

but had no natural defenses. A strong leader and strong army were needed

to defend it. Determined attackers were able to sack the city on numerous

occasions during its history when such a leader or army was not available.

_Rise To Power_

Babylonia was founded as a kingdom around 1900 B.C. by Semitic Amorite

barbarians who overran much of Canaan, Akkad, and Sumer one hundred years

earlier. In 1792 B.C. the small kingdom was inherited by Hammurabi who

ruled until 1750. During those 42 years, Hammurabi extended the kingdom

to ecompass all of Sumer to the east and Akkad to the north. He also

defeated the barbarian Gutians in the Zagros Mountains to the northeast

who had previously sacked Akkad. He also pushed back the Elamites (east

of Sumer) and the Assyrians (north of Akkad). This was the first great

Babylonian empire.

Following Hammurabi's death, the empire fell into gradual decline. In

1595 B.C. Hittites drove down the Euphrates and sacked Babylon, plundering

the city and deposing the Amorite kings. This ended the first empire.

Within 20 yearsm new invaders called the Kassites had settled around

Babylon, establishing a new dynasty. The Kassites were neither Semetic

nor Indo- European, and probably came from east of the Zagros Mountains.

The Kassites ruled Babylon for several centuries before being coquered by

the Assyrians in 1158 B.C. Descendants of the Amorites had restored

control by 1027 B.C.

During the Eighth and Seventh Centuries, the Chaldeans, new Semitic

immigrants to the area, and the Assyrians fought for control of Babylon.

The Assyrians claimed sovereignty for a while but sacked the city once as

punishment for rebellion.

A Chaldean sheik seized the Babylonian throne and then destroyed the

Assyrians with the help of the Medes. The Chaldean Dynasty and the New

Empire lasted from 626 to 539 B.C. The revived Babylonians overran most

of the Assyrian Empire from the Persian Gulf to the boarders of Egypt.

In 597 B.C. Nebuchadrezzar II captured Jerusalem and forced its king and

nobles into exile. When the puppet ruler of Jerusalem rebelled, the city

was taken again in 586 B.C. after an eighteen- month siege. This time

much of the population was deported to Babylon and their descendants

remained there until released by the Persians. This period of Hebrew

history was called the Babylonian Captivity.

_Economy_

The basic economy of Babylonia was typical for Mesopotamia at the time.

Irrigation and dikes controlled the waters of the Euphrates River,

providing bountiful harvests of grain, vegetables, and fruit in normal

years. These foods were supplemented by herds of sheep and some cattle.

The Babylonians traded food surpluses for raw materials like copper, gold,

and wood, which they used to manufacture weapons, household objects,

jewelry, and other items that could be traded.

The fabulous wealth of the New Empire (626 to 539 B.C.) derived from

controlling the east- west and north- south trade, primarliy thanks to

control of Phoenicia, Syria, and the other Levant ports. This area had

been the nexus of civilized trade for over a thousand years, and, for that

reason, the prize for every empire and pseudo- empire of the age. Not

long after the end of the Babylonian New Empire, the shift of much trade

to the central and western Mediterranean reduced the importance of this

area.

_Religion and Culture_

The Babylonians worshipped many gods, but chief was of these was Murduk,

god of the city of Babylon. Marduk was represented by a dragon in the

artwork that decorated the city. Festivals were held throughout the year

in honor of specific gods to assure their favor. The New Year festival

for Marduk assured the fertility in their fields.

For a brief time the New Empire was among the richest in the world. The

city reflected that wealth in its extensive and highly decorated monuments.

The interior of the Temple of Marduk was reportedly converted with gold.

At the center of a great and rich trading empire, the people of Babylon

had access to exotic goods and manufactured items throughout the world.

_Government_

The New Empire government of Babylon adopted many of the Assyrian imperial

practices, which probably contributed to its own short life. The king had

overall administrative power, in addition to his central role in important

religious rituals. Governors ruled important provinces on behalf of the

king, but most of these were Babylonians appointed from outside the local

area. Local puppets were often left in place to rule local kingdoms, but

this occasionally led to revolt, as in the case of Jerusalem.

_Architecture_

The city of Babylon was destroyed and rebuilt several times, usually on

top of the old ruins. Buildings and walls were constructed of mud bricks,

first sun- baked, and then baked with fire.

The Babylon of the New Empire period was one of the wealthiest cities in

the world. The Chaldean kings rebuilt the city and established its

reputation for splendor for all time. The Euphrates River passed through

the middle of the city and was directed around its four sides through a

moat. Inside the moat were double walls. The Greek historian Herodotus

claimed that the outer wall was so wide that a chariot with four horses

could drive along it. There were several city gates, each named after an

important god. The Ishtur gate opened on the sacred Processional Way that

led to the ziggurat and Temple of Marduk. The gate, sacred way, and

temples were decorated with bright blue glazed tiles depicting real and

fantasy animals in relief.

The two sides of the city were connected by a bridge. The east side

contained the palace and temples, including many ziggaurats. The greatest

of these, built by Nebuchanezzar II, had seven levels with a small temple

to Marduk at the top. This zaggurat was probably the Tower of Babel

mentioned in the Bible. Nebuchanezzar also built the Hanging Gardens of

Babylon, a multistoried ziggurat decorated with trees and plants to

resemble a mountain. According to legend, the gardens were built to

remind one of his wives of her mountain homeland. The Hangine Gardens

were one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

_Military_

Little is known of the Babylonian military from either the Old or New

Empires, although Hammurabi's army of the Old Empire may have made

important use of chariots when these were first coming into use.

The New Empire armies probably copied much from the Assyrians. This would

suggest that Babylonians made extensive use of cavaly, especially mounted

bowmen. Foot troops probably used iron weapons and wore iron helmets and

some chain mail armor. The Babylonians and their less advanced allies,

the Medes, took three leavily fortified Assyrian cities in short

succession, suggesting they had mastered the Assyrian techniques for

storming cities.

_Decline and Fall_

Following seven turbulent years that saw three new kings in succession and

two rebellions, in 556 B.C. the last of the Chaldean Dynasty, Nabonidus,

took the throne of Babylon. He worshipped the moon god, Sin, but

neglected local affairs and important religious rituals associated with

other gods. For several years he did not perform the important New Year

festival in the name of Marduk, the deity of Babylon, that renewed the

fertility of the land. He also introduced reforms that gave effective

control of temple finances to himself.

The unrest and dissatisfaction these events fostered came at a time when a

new power to the east, Persia, had been gradually expanding and spreading

its influence. Under Cyrus I, the Persians had first overthrown their

masters. the Medes, and then expanded to the northwest into Anatolia.

During these conquests, Cyrus demonstrated a high degree of tolerance and

clemency that encouraged others not to resist.

When Cyrus turned against the Babylonians, he was welcomed by a large

segment of the population, including the influential priests. Cyrus first

defeated Nabonidus in battle at Opis. Nabonidus fled to Babylon but the

city surrendered without a fight on October 12, 539 B.C., and the last

Babylonian king went into captivity. The Jews and other peoples held in

Babylonian captivity were freed. The entire New Empire of Babylon became

part of the Persian Empire and Babylonia ceased to exist as a separate

entity and culture.

_Legacy_

The first Babylonian empire is best known for the Law Code of King

Hammurabi, circa 1750 B.C., purportedly handed down by the god Shamah.

The laws themselves are preserved on a 90- inch stone stele that was

uncovered in Susa in modern times. It has been carted off by the Elamites

following their sack of Babylon in 1158 B.C.

The New Empire of Babylon was noted especially for its wealth and grandeur.

This was reported in Old Testament accounts from the period of the Hebrew

Babylonian Captivity and by the Greek historian Herodotus who visited the

city. The most impressive features of the city were its walls, the Ishtar

Gate, the ziggurat and temple to Marduk, the Processional Way, and Hanging

Gardens.

 

 

=====================================

X. Chosens

=====================================

(2333 to 108 B.C.)

The Korean Peninsula was invaded by successive waves of Neolithic peoples,

but the culture of the area changed little until the use of bronze

implements began around the fifteenth century B.C. The Bronze Age brought

significant change to Korea. Recovered bronze spear points and arrowheads

indicate conquest and warfare were widespread. Towns protected by earthen

walls appeared. Funerary dolmens (rock shelters covered by enormous

capstones) indicate the rise of a stratified political and social

structure.

The Bronze Age in Korea lasted until the fourth century B.C. During the

Bronze Age, the first large political groupings of walled town states

arose. The most advanced of these was Ancient Chosen.

_Location_

The state of Ancient Chosen was located in the valleys of the Liao and

Taedong Rivers, in the southwestern part of what is now North Korea. It

occupied the Taedong River basin originally and spread its influence

gradually over a large region of the peninsula.

_Capital_

The Ancient CVhosen capital was Wanggom- song, now modern P'yongyang (the

capital of North Korea).

_The Rise To Power_

The power of Ancient Chosen grew from around 2333 B.C. to the end of the

fourth century B.C. The Ancient Chosen expanded possibly due to better

agriculture and population growth, better use of newly available iron

weapons, better leaders, or all of the above. When the Chinese kingdom of

Yen encountered the Ancient Chosen culture, they referred to them as being

arrogant and cruel, which suggests that the Ancient Chosen were formidable

warriors.

Despite the apparent strength of Ancient Chosen at the end of the fourth

century, they went into decline, nevertheless, following the arrival of

the Yen kingdom across the Liao River. The Chinese overlord in control of

the Liaotung Peninsula changed several times during the next century and

the political upheaval fostered an immigration of Chinese political,

military, and economic power into Ancient Chosen. One refugee, named

Wiman, built a power base among the other refugees and eventually drove

the Ancient Chosen king from his throne around 190 B.C.

The new kingdom, called Wiman Chosen, was a hybrid of Korean and Chinese

influences. Due to its superior military and economic strength, it

subjugated smaller Korean states to its north, east, and south. This

placed the Wiman Chosen between the now dominant Han Chinese and the

remaining Korean states in the south, allowing it to control trade between

the two regions. For three generations, the Wiman Chosen dominated north

central Korea.

_Economy_

The principal economic activity of Bronze and early Iron Age Korea was

agriculture. Rice was the main food crop of southern Korea. Raising

livestock (oxen, horses, pigs, and dogs) was more important in the north.

The basic farming unit was the village, made up of headmen, free peasants,

and a few slaves. Peasants and slaves worked mainly on communal farms.

There were some peasant- owned lands as well. The fre peasants were

heavily taxed and provided labor to the state. They were not permitted to

bear arms or serve in the armies.

_Religion and Culture_

The leaders of the early walled towns in Korea performed both political

and religious functions. The dignity and authority of these leaders was

enhanced by their acknowledged descent from a sun god. Political and

religious power split gradually into two separate functions as the

confederation grew in size. Rituals were thereafter directed by

specialists.

The primitive religion of prrehistoric Korea was based on animism and

shomanism. Primative priets were magicians who attempted to move the gods

by evocation. By the time of Ancient Chosen, priests prayed to the gods

humbly and earnestly for favor.

The ancient Koreans believed in the immortality of the soul and buried

their elite with elaborate ritual. They also practiced divination. The

two most important festivals of the year were tied to the growing season.

In the spring, they prayed for abundance, and in the fall, they celebrated

thanksgiving.

_Government_

Village communities were governed by a ruling elite that kept order,

allocated land and resources, collected taxes, and provided security. The

individual communities were held together in confederation by military and

economic means. Ancient Chosen took the name wang (king) for its leader

about the time that the nearby Chinese kingdom of Yen employed the same

title.

_Military_

Little is known about the armies of Ancient Chosen except that they were

standing armies and not levies of peasants. Evidence of horses and

chariots is not widespread, suggesting that only the richest warriors

could afford these enhancements. Bronze spear points and arrowheads from

the early days of the Ancient Chosen suggest an army of spearmen and

archers. Later finds include bronze daggers and spears of distinctive

styles, iron daggers, and iron spear points. The daggers suggest that

these short weapons were used by infantry for close combat in addition to

spears.

The prowess of Ancient Chosen armies can be inferred from their expansion

and dominance of the region and the comments about Ancient Chosen recorded

by their Chinese neighbors.

_Decline and Fall_

Unified China under Han Dynasty was not pleased by Wiman Chosen's growth

and control of eastward trade, and was concerned about a possible alliance

between Wiman Chosen and the Hsiung-nu (barbarians then expanding out of

Mongolia into Manchuria). The aggressive Emperor Wu of Han launched an

attack against the Wiman Chosen when diplomacy failed to bring them to

heel. The Wiman Chosen were a tough adversary but were weakened by

defections and collaborations among the nobility. The Wiman Chosen

capital fell in 108 B.C., and the kingdom came to an end.

_Legacy_

The legacy of the Ancient Chosen was a Korean culture that remained

separate from that of China, despite the proximity and influence of that

enormous neighbor.

 

=====================================

XI. Egyptians

=====================================

(5000 to 30 B.C)

The Egyptian culture was one of the oldest and most long- lived of

antiquity. It benefited from an abundance of good farmland, nearby

mineral resources, and a good strategic position. Despite occasional

invasion and internal strife, it endured as a distinctive culture for

nearly 5000 years.

_Location_

Ancient Egypt occupied almost the same area as modern Egypt does today.

Its civilization stayed very close to the Nile River. Because it was

almost entirely surrounded by desert, enemies could approach only from the

west and southeast along the Mediterranean coast, from the south down the

river valley, or directly over the sea.

_Capital_

During its long history, the capital of Egypt was located at various times

in Heirakonpolis, Memphis, Herakleopolis, Thebes, It- towy, Akhetaten,

Tanis, Sais, and Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. Greek overlords, the

Ptolemaic dynasty, ruled from here until 30 B.C.

_Rise of Power_

Agriculture was brought to the Nile Valley prior to 5000 B.C. by immigrants

from the highlands of Palestine. By 3000 B.C., acriculture had spread

southward up the Nile. Flooding was under control and irrigation put much

more land under cultivation. The adundance of food led to large

populations and increased wealth for the area.

The early history of Egypt was a period of consolidation. Two separate

kingdoms rose and vied for power along the river. Around 3100 B.C., King

Menes of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and established the First

Dynasty.

Between 3100 B.C. and 1300 B.C., the Egyptians struggled with Nubians and

Kushites up the Nile to the south. Forts and garrisons held the frontier

but during periods of weakness these were destroyed. Around 1300 B.C. the

Nubians suffered an important defeat and were neutralized as a thread for

about 500 years.

Egypt's Dynasty XIII, 1783 to 1640 B.C., was very weak. During this period

the frontier forts to the south were lost and Semitic immigrants from the

east moved into the delta. These immigrants, called the Hyskos, took

control of the entire delta region in 1674 B.C. The Hyskos eventually

adopted Egyptian culture and language, and introduced the horse and chariot.

The New Kingdom was founded by Dynasty XVIII in 1552 B.C., following a

successful war to drive out the Hyskos. This dynasty was the great age of

the warrior pharaohs and Egyptian empire. The prevent further incursions

from the east, the Egyptians attempted to establish control over the

kingdoms in the Levant and Palestine. During this period they vied for

control with the Hittites and Mitanni, as well as the local kings. The

Egyptians were the dominant power in the Near East until around 1200 B.C.

when the entire area was overrun by barbarians.

_Economy_

Egypt was an agricultural society dependent on the water and soil brought

down each year by the Nile from the highlands of Ethiopia. Extensive

irrigation made it possible to farm fields not adjacent to the river but

still close enough to be inundated each year and receive new sediments.

The principalcrops were wheat and barley that were used to make bread and

beer, the staples of their diet. They also grew fruits and vegetables and

raised cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, geese, ducks, and pigeons. The

abundance of food meant a large population and allowed the export of food.

The Nile passes through several hilly regions and some of these were rich

in minerals. The nearby Sinai Peninsula also held mineral riches. Unlike

some other ancient cultures, the Egyptians had relatively easy access to

copper and gold, further increasing their wealth. The hills were sources

of granite, limestone, and sandstone that they used for construction.

The Egyptians were one of the first cultures to build boats and they

eventually took these out into the Mediterranean. Egypt became an

important Mediterranean part of call as trade increased because it was it

was a rich market for both buying and selling. Principal Egyptian exports

were grain, food, linen, perfume, and manufactured goods. Important

imports were timber, slaves, silver, horses, pottery, and wine.

_Religion and Culture_

The Egyptian religion had over 2000 gods, though only a few of these were

predominant. The important gods had a home town where their principal

temple was located. One of the most important was Ra, the sun god,

understandably critical to an agricultural society.

They believed in a life after death. They referred to this as the "next

world," and thought it was somewhere to the west. They developed elaborate

burials and embalming to preserve the body for this second life. Goods

and servants were buried with royalty and nobles to serve them.

_Government_

The ancient Egyptians believed their kings were descended from the sun god,

Ra. They believed they could communicate with the gods through the king.

The king had absolute power but was required to perform several important

duties. He was responsible for the harvest and irrigation of crops. He

directed the government, trade, and foreign policy. He enforced the laws

and led the army. During the New Kingdom, the pharoahs usually commanded

their armies in the field.

Reporting directly to the pharaoh were two viziers, one for Lower Egypt

based in Memphis, and one for Upper Egypt based in Thebes. Below the

viziers were rural districts controlled by governors and towns controlled

by mayors. These officials carried out the pharaoh's orders and collected

taxes. Scribes kept the records.

The Egyptians had no coinage until they were conquered by Alexander the

Great. All workers paid taxes by turning over a percentage of their

production, whether it was fish, grain, trade goods, pottery, or other

goods. In addition, each household had to provide a laborer for several

weeks each year for mining or public works. The pyramids were probably

built by laborers putting in their annual service.

_Military_

The Egyptians were among the first cultures to possess the necessary

population and wealth to build standing armies of professional soldiers.

Prior to the Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot, which were quickly

adopted by the Egyptians in turn. The dominance of the Near East by New

Kingdom Egypt, from 1600 to 1200 B.C., was primarily due to the large and

powerful chariot armies sent into battle there. These chariots carried a

driver and composite bow archer and were the elite of the army.

_Decline and Fall_

Egypt survived the catastrophe by 1200 B.C. by fighting off several major

attempted invasions. They went into decline, nevertheless, following the

death of Rameses III who was the last of the great warrior pharaohs. Their

decline was partly due to trade coming to a virtual halt for several

generations. A series of weak kings and civil wars over succession to the

throne also eroded their strength.

In 728 B.C., Egypt was conquered by Nubia and held for 60 years. In 665

B.C., the Assyrians completed a conquest of Egypt by sacking Thebes. A

new native Egyptian dynasty arouse in 664 B.C., eventually throwing out

the Nubians and asserting their independence from Assyria by stopping

payment of tribute. In 525 B.C., Egypt was conquered again from the east,

this time by Combryses II of Persia. When the Persians faltered in their

war with the Greeks, the Egyptians reclaimed their independence briefly

before succombing once more to Persian invasion by 332 B.C. Within a year,

however, the Persians themselves were gone, destroyed by Alexander the

Great who was accepted by the Egyptians as their pharaoh.

Greeks ruled Egypt as overlords from the time of Alexander the Great until

30 B.C. when Cleopatra VII, th elast of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and Mark

Antony were defeated by Octavian. Egypt thereafter became part of the

Roman Empire.

_Legacy_

The ancient Egyptians are remembered for the quality and quanity of

cultural objects that have survived to the present, including the Pyramids,

the Sphinx, the treasures of Tutankhamen's tomb, the other monuments and

temples of the Nile Valley, hieroglyphics, mummies, and papyrus. They are

also rememberdd in the West because of their prominent role in the history

of ancient Israel as recounted in the Old Testament.

 

 

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XII. Greeks

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Under Construction

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XIII. Hittites

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Under Construction

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XIV. Minoans

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(2200 to 1200 B.C.)

Primitive agricultural communities sprang up around the Aegean Sea by 6000

B.C., but this area lagged behind Egypt and Mesopotamia in advancing toward

civilization. For reasons not yet understood, the island- based Minoan

culture made a sudden leap forward around 2000 B.C. and became the first

civilization of Europe. The sudden take- off may have been stimulated by

trading contact with Mesopotamia through Levant ports of through contact

with Egypt. One theory suggests that refugees from Egypt during a time of

turmoil may have emigrated to Crete and brought technology and ideas with

them.

_Location_

The Minoan culture was centered on the island of Crete, but extended to

other nearby islands, including Thera and Rhodes. They may have colonized

the Anatolian coast at Miletus and elsewhere. By the extension of trade,

they influenced the developing Greek culture on the mainland and other

Aegean islands.

_Capital_

The palace at Knossos on Crete was the capital of the Minoan civilization.

It remained a hidden ruin until rediscovered and revealed in the twentieth

century.

_Rise of Power_

The Minoans were an economic power, not a military one. They preserved

their economic advantages by apparently controlling ship traffic in the

Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. For approximately 800 years, they dominated

trade in these regions. They were so secure on their islands, protected by

their ships, that they never fortified their cities.

_Economy_

Crete was rich in natural resources, including farmland, water, supplies,

timber, copper, building stone, and access to the sea. The Minoans were

prosperous thanks to agriculture and fishing, but grew rich primarily on

trade.

The Minoans grew grain, fruit, herbs, and olives. Grain, wine, olive oil,

timber, ceramics, and manufactured goods were theri principal exorts. They

imported tin, silver, gold, linen, luxury items, and raw materials for

manufacturing.

_Religion and Culture_

The high standard of living, the relative abundance of food and other good

things, and the security of their island homes gave the Minoans an outlook

on life substantially different from other contemporary cultures. Perhaps

because life was good, worship and communication with gods was not

stressed. They built no great temples. Their religion was dominated by

female goddesses who protected the household, the crops, and the animals.

The Minoans made regular offerings of food, statues, and other objects.

The Minoans may have practiced human sacrifice at one time. There is a

famous tale of a minotaur, half man, half bull, who lived in a labyrinth

beneath the palace. Young people were sacrificed to the minotaur each

year. The high priest or king may have worn a bull mask for the sacrifice,

creating the illusion of half man, half animal.

They believed in an afterlife and buried the dead with food and possessions

that would be of use. Two sacred symbols were bull horns and the double-

sided axe.

The Minoans developed a hieroglyphic writing system around 2000 B.C.,

perhaps following trading contract with the Egyptians. By 1900 B.C., they

had developed a new script now called Linear A. Athird script called

Linear B came into use as Knossus around 1450 B.C. To date, onlu Linear B

has been deciphered, but most of the surviving examples are accounting

records that reveal little about their history and culture.

Surviving artwork shows the people of Crete engaging in the sport of bull-

jumping. The significance of this activity is not known. Young men and

women are depicted approaching a charging bull, grabing it by the horns,

and somersaulting over the animal's back to land behind it.

The everyday life of the Minoans was pleasant and relatively free of war

and unrest, as witnessed by the richness and exuberance of their frescos,

wall paintings, and decorative objects.

_Government_

The great palace at Knossus was also a giant warehouse. The distribution

of food and other goods may have been organized from here.

The only king whose name survives was Minos. It may be that the word,

Minos, referred to the office, not the man, like the Egyptian term, pharaoh.

_Military_

The Minoans had little apparent need for an army, relying instead on their

navy to keep any enemies from approaching. Minoan ships were galleys,

manned by rowers on both sides. Narrow galleys were fast and maneuverable,

allowing them to overtake slower sailing ships of the day. They did not

employ rams at this early date, according to the evidence of surviving

artwork.

_Decline and Fall_

The idyllic life of the Minoans was disrupted by natural disasters. The

archaelogical remains indicate that the palace of Knossus was destroyed by

an earthquake in 1700 B.C. and rebuilt. The nearby island of Thera was

partially sunk by a volcanic eruption and the resulting tidal wave probably

struck Crete, causing extensive damage. The Minoan culture suffered from

recurrent earthquakes and the Thera explosion, but the extent of the damage

and its effect on their civilization is debated.

There are two main scenarios for the end of the Minoan culture. According

to the oldest theory, mainland Greeks invaded around 1450 B.C., essentially

destroying the culture, although it lingered for 700 years more until

mainland Greece itself was overrun. In the second scenario, based on more

recent research, the Minoans suffered through disaster and a resulting

loosening of their control of sea trade and movement, but did not succomb

to the mainland Greeks. The Minoans were instead destroyed along with the

Myceneans on the mainland by barbarians as part of the catastrophe of 1200

B.C. Evidence suggests that by 1180 B.C., the Cretans had moved from

coastal towns and palaces to defensive city sites high in the hills.

Attacks and the threat of further attacks were the probable cause of this

shift.

_Legacy_

The Minoans are remembered today for their fabulous palace and frescoes at

Knossos, now partially restored. It may have been the largest and most

beautiful palace of the late Bronze Age. They are also remembered for

their mysterious writings, some of which continue to defy linguists.

=====================================

XV. Persians

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Under Construction

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XVI. Phoenicians

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(1200 to 146 B.C.)

There was never a country or empire called "Phoenicia." The historical

name of this culture was coined by the Greeks and was not their name. The

name Phoenicia derives from the Greek word Phoenix, meaning in this case a

dark red or purple- brown color. The phoenicians were renowned for their

cloth dyes, especially an expensive purple one popular with royalty.

Because Greek language and writings were preserved in abundance, versus

Phoenician texts which are very scant, the name stuck.

_Location_

The Phoenicians appeared on the historical scene around 1200 B.C., a time

when most of the civilized world was being overrun by barbarians. In the

political and military void of a 400- year ancient dark age, this small

group of traders were able to prosper and gradually expand their influence.

Instead of acquiring a physical empire of contiguous lands, they gradually

built, instead, a large trading and colonial network from their home base

of a few independent cities along the coast of what is now Lebanon.

They were the remnants of the Canaanites, a Semitic people who occupied

city- states in this region prior to 1200 B.C. The most important of their

early cities were Tyre, Sidon, Berytus (modern Beirut), and Byblos. These

coastal cities were hemmed in on the land side by the Lebanon Mountains.

The only onvious opportunity for expansion and economic gain was by sea.

_Rise To Power_

Prior to the catastrophe of 1200 B.C., Canaanite traders had been

restricted to perhaps the Levantine coast, Egypt, and the southern coast of

Anatolia. The Minoans on Crete blocked entrance into the Aegean,

controlled all trade further west. The Canaanite coastal towns were

usually controlled by Egypt, and one of their principal businesses was

providing wood (the cedars of Lebanon) to the Nile region.

The Minoan civilization was destroyed in 1200 B.C., removing most of the

constraints on Mediterranean and Aegean Sea trading bu others. The

Phoenicians were the most aggressive of those attempting to fill the void.

Their cities were well- positioned for this enterprise by being located

literally in the center of the known world. The Aegean, Mesopotamia, and

Egypt were all roughly equidistant to the west, south, and east. For any

of the three regions to trade with another, the easiest trade route was

through the Phoenician cities.

By the ninth century B.C., the ancient dark ages was nearing an end. The

Phoenicians were growing rich as traders and this attracted enemies,

principally the Assyrians. In the face of repeated assaults or heavy

tribute payments at the least, the Tyrians adopted the strategy of

establishing colonies to the west. Colonies were removed from the grasp

of the Assyrians and also helped with the exploitation of metals and trade

in the western Mediterranean.

The most important Phoenician colony was at Carthage, established around

700 B.C. Other important colonies were in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, and

Spain. Over the next 500 years, Carthage grew rapidly in size and power.

Most of its wealth came from the ore mines of Spain. Carthage fought for

control of the western Mediterranean with the Greeks first and then the

Romans.

_Economy_

The early Phoenician economy was built on timber sales, wood working, and

cloth dyeing. Dyes ranging in color from a pink to a dark purple were

made from the rotting gland of a sea snail. Gradually the Phoenician city-

states became centers of maritime trade and manufacturing. Having limited

natural resources, they imported raw materials and fashioned them into more

valuable objects that could be shipped profitably, such as jewelry,

metalwork, furniture, and housewares. They borrowed techniques and styles

from all corners of the world that they touched as traders.

While exploring the western Mediterranean, they either discovered large

metal deposits in Spain or took them from Greeks who may have been there

first. By fortifying sites on Sicily and North Africa, they effectively

denied other traders access to the riches of Spain, the west Africa coast

(gold, exotic woods, and slaves), and Britain (tin, which was used to make

bronze.)

_Religion and Culture_

Phoenician religion was polytheistic and their other gods required

continual sacrifices to forestall disaster, especially Boal, the god of

storms. No significant Phoenician temple has yet been discovered, but most

of their ancient cities lie buried under modern cities. The Bible recounts

human sacriices by the Phoenicians but this practice was eventually

stopped. It carried on in Carthage, however. A cemetary outside of

Carthage was found to obtain thousands of urns of infants sacrificed to the

gods. (BURN BABY BURN!!) Noble families of Carthage got into the habit

of substituting animals and slaves for their children, but following a

military disaster in 320 B.C., 500 infants from the best families were

sacrificed. (HA HA!!)

Early Phoenician culture was influenced to a large degree by their Semitic

origins and Semitic neighbors. Their later culture was heavily influenced

by the Greeks. There are few objects known today that are clearly

Phoenician.

One of their lasting copntributions to civilization was a proto- alphabet

where each letter represented a consonant. This cut down significantly the

number of symbols required to make written words. When written, the vowels

were implied. Later advances by the Greeks added symbols for vowel sounds,

creating the first true alphabet.

_Military_

When the Phoenicians began competing with the Greeks for trade and

colonies, the contest led to construction of the first ships built

expressly for war. These were rowed galleys armed with a ram at the front

and marines for boarding. Sea warfare grew in importance during the fifth

century when Persia fought the Greek city- states for control of the

Aegean, western Anatolia, and eastern Mediterranean. By this time the

Phoenician cities were under control of Persia. Phoenician ships made up

the bulk of the Persian fleet that was defeated at Salamis in 480 B.C.

Phoenician galleys of the time were larger and less maneuverable than their

Greek counterparts, and this was a fatal shortcoming in restricted waters.

The Carthaginian navy dominated the early Punic Wars with Rome, but the

Romans captured a Carthaginian ship that went aground and built duplicates.

The Romans eventually cleared the Mediterranean of Carthaginian ships and

carried the wars to a successful conclusion in North Africa.

The Carthiginians had the only significant land army that can be considered

Phoenician in derivation. Their greatest general was Hannibal, who invaded

Italy from Spain, passing the Alps in winter with his army and elephants.

Most of his troops were Celts enlisted from Spain and Gaul. One strength

of his army was cavalry from North Africa that was usually able to drive

off the Roman cavalry, surround the Roman infantry, and help annihilate it.

The Romans defeated Hannibal eventually, not by fighting him, but by

attacking where he wasn't- Spain first, and then North Africa.

_Decline and Fall_

The Phoenician home cities were periodically under the thumb of one eastern

conqueror after another from roughly 900 to 332 B.C. They were never

strong enough to hold off the powerful armies from Assyria, then Babylon,

and then Persia, although they were often rich enough to buy them off. In

332 B.C., Alexander the Great took them one by one, ending their on- again,

off- again independence. They became Greek cities and lost their identity

as Phoenician for good.

The Carthaginians lasted another 200 years. Having held off Greek

expansion past Sicily successfully for many centuries, they met their match

in the more populous and better organized Romans. At the end of the Punic

Wars in 146 B.C., the people of Carthage were carried off to slavery and

the city was destroyed.

_Legacy_

The Phoenician tradition as traders carried on in Lebanon down through the

years to modern times, regardless of who was in political control.

Phoenicians are also recalled as great mariners. They are believed to have

been the first civilized culture to reach Britain and the Azores. There

is evidence that Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa on commission by the

Egyptians around 600 B.C. There is some questionable evidence that they

reached the New World.

Their most important contribution was their revised alphabet, which they

spread around the known world. When further refined and spread by the

Greeks and Romans, it became the alphabet used today by most western

cultures.

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XVII. Shangs

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Under Construction

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XVIII. Sumerians

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(5000 to 2230 B.C.)

The Sumerians were one of the earliest civilizations. Their growth and

expansion was dependent on rich river valley farmlands. They were not as

fortunate as others in terms of mineral resources or strategic position,

however, and did not enjoy the existence of the Egyptians. They are

considered one of the most important early cultures, nevertheless, because

of the many advances attributed to them. Because their location was weak

in terms of defense and poor in terms of resources, they were forced to

innovate. In many ways they were more important to history because of

their innovations than the much richer Egyptians.

_Location_

Sumer was located in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates

Rivers come together before flowing into the Persian Gulf. By 5000 B.C.

primitive farmers had come down to the valley from the Zafros Mountains to

the east. The land was rich but baked hard in the summer sun after the

late spring river floods. The early settlers learned how to control some

of the flooding with dikes and how to irrigate their summer fields. Early

settlements at Ur, Uruk, and Eridu grew into independent cities first and

then city- states.

_Capital_

As a conglomeration of city- states, there was no clear capital for the

Sumerians because the center of power shifted from time to time. The

cities of Ur, Lagash, Erech, Eridu, and Uruk were the most important.

_Rise to Power_

From 5000 to 3000 B.C.. agricultural communities of Sumer gradually

coalesced into city- states along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates

Rivers. The peak of this city- state culture lasted from 2900 to 2400

B.C. They warred with one another from time to time and competed for land

and trade, but never conglomerated or built an empire that expanded from

their traditional homeland.

The city- states of the river valley were relatively rich from food

production, manufacturing, and their position along important trade routes.

This made them tempting targets when more powerful and warlike neighbors

came into existence to the north and east.

_Economy_

The Sumerians grew wheat, barley, peas, onions, turnips, and dates. They

raised cattle and sheep, fished, and hunted wildfowl along the river. Food

was generally abundant and populations grew accordingly.

There was no copper in the river valleys, but copper was found in the

mountains to the east and north. The Sumerians learned how to obtain

copper from ore by 4000 B.C. and to make bronze by 3500 B.C.

They traded food, cloth, and manufactured items for raw materials, such as

timber, copper, and stone, which they fashioned into items of everydat use,

weapons, and more valuable trade goods. Their merchants traveled up the

Tigris and Euphrates to trade with the people of Anatolia and the

Mediterranean coast. They also traded in the Persian Gulf for items from

India and further east.

_Religion and Culture_

The Sumerians worshipped hundreds of gods, with each city having its own

patron deity. The principal gods, such as Entil, the god of air, were too

busy to bother with the plight of individuals. For that reason, each

Sumerian worshipped a particular minor god or goddess who was expected to

interact with the major gods.

The Sumerians did not believe in an afterlife and were realistic about the

limits of human goodness. They accepted that although the gods were above

question, they were not always kind.

The soul and center of each city- state was its temple to the patron god.

The Sumerians believed that the god owned the city- state. Part of the

land was farmed directly for the god, often by slaves. The remaining land

was farmed by the temple staff or by farmers who paid rent to the temple.

Rents and offerings paid for temple operation and supported the poor.

Slaves were an important part of the community and were one objective of

any military campaign. Even locals could become slaves to satisfy debts.

Slaves were allowed to work extra hours for themselves and use any savings

to buy their freedom.

_Government_

Each city in Sumer was ruled at first by a council of elders, although a

war leader, called a lugal, was selected to lead the army during conflict.

Eventually the lugals assumed power as kings and established dynasties.

Evidence suggests that the Sumerians may have taken the first steps toward

democracy by electing a representative assembly. They consisted of two

houses- a senate of important citizens and a lower house made up of those

available for military duty.

Preserved clay tablets reveal that the Sumerians maintained courts of

justice where people could expect a fair trial. One table recorded the

oldest murder trial in history.

Most of the food production and distribution was controlled through the

temple. A noble class arose based on land ownership, control of land, and

manufacturing. Most trade and manufacturing was outside the temple's

control.

_Architecture_

The Sumerians were handicapped by having no easy access to stone or wood

for building. Sun- dried mud bricks were their main building material and

this required some ingenuity. They were the first to employ the arch,

vault, and dome. Their cities were completely enclosed by brick walls.

Their most important buildings were temples, built as large mounds called

ziggurats. Through cycles of attack, destruction, and restoration, the

temples were rebuilt again and again at the same site, gradually getting

larger with each reincarnation. Mud bricks eroded and crumbled much more

quicker than stone, however, and little Sumerian architecture survives.

_Military_

The key influence on the Sumerian military was their poor strategic

position. Natural obstacles for defense existed only on their borders to

the west (desert) and south (Persian Gulf). When more populous and

powerful enemies appeared to their north and east, the Sumerians were

susceptible to attack.

Surviving artwork and archaelogical remains indicate that the Sumerian

soldiers used spears and short swords of bronze. They wore bronze helmets

and carried large shields. Their armies were not particularly noted but

records are sparse.

They engaged in siege warfare during their many inter- city wars. Mud

brick walls did not stand against determined attackers who had the time to

pry out the bricks or pound them to dust.

The Sumerians invented chariots and were the first to use them in battle.

These earlt chariots were four- wheeled and pulled by wild asses, and were

not effective in battle as the later two- wheeled design pulled by horses.

Sumerian chariots may have served primarily as fast transports, but

surviving artwork suggests that spears or javelins were thrown from them.

_Decline and Fall_

A group of Semitic people called the Akkadians settled north of Sumer along

the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Akkadians adopted very quickly the

culture, religion, and writing of the more advanced Sumerians who had

preceeded them. In 2371 B.C., Sargon I seized the throne of Kish and

gradually conquered all of the city- states of Akkadia. He turned south

and conquered the city- states of Sumer, which were unable to unite in

defense. Sargon established the first empire of history during the reign

from 2371 to 2316 B.C., extending his control along the Fertile Crescent

from Elam, to the east of Sumer, to the Mediterranean coast.

Sargon's empire collapsed after his death but was restored briefly by his

grandson. Around 2230 B.C. the Akkadian empire was destroyed by an

invasion of Gutians, the barbarian hill people from the Zagros Mountains.

New cities and towns soon grew up along the river valleys, but the

Sumerians were gone as a distinct and indepentent culture.

_Legacy_

The Sumerians are most noted for the invention of the wheel and writing.

The wheel was important for transport and for pottery making. Sumerian

writing, cuneiform, consisted of groups of stylus wedge impressions pushed

into clay to form stylized pictograms representing words. This writing

grew out of record keeping and seals from business transactions.

They were among the first to use boats, including round boats made of hide

stretched over a wooden framework. These coracles were especially popular

among the reeds and waterways of the river delta.

 

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XIX. Yamato

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(300 to 800 A.D.)

The Yamato period of Japanese culture is also called the age of the great

tombs because of the appearance in these centuries of great tombs and tomb

clusters, presumably for the burial of rulers and other elites. The name

Yamato comes ffrom the region of Japan that was the home of the first clan

to consolidate rule over most of the islands. During the Yamato period,

Japan accelerated its advance in technology by adopting the cultivation of

rice, improving its pottery, developing iron working, building social

hierarchies, and accomplishing a political, economic, anc cultural

consolidation of the islands.

_Location_

The hereditary lands of the Yamato clan are on a peninsula on the southwest

coast of Ise Bay. This bay is located on the main island of Honshu,

southwest of modern Tokyo.

_Capital_

Prior to the late seventh century A.D., there was no permanent capital of

Japan. Each king ruled from his own palace, which was usually abandoned

following his death. As the Yamato began to adopt the Chinese system of

governemntal bureaucracy and organization, the need for a permanent seat of

government arose. The first capital was founded at Fujiwara in 694 A.D.

and served three emperors before being abandoned in 710. The second

capital of this period was built at Heijo and occupied from 710 to 784.

_Rise To Power_

Chinese documents from the second century A.D. make reference to 100

countries existing in Wa, a.k.a. Japan. By the third century, the Chinese

refer to a queen of Wa, probably of the Yamato clan, who had consolidated

30 countries under her rule. During this period, the Yamato clan

consolidated its control over most of Japan with a combination of military

conquest, intermarriage, and diplomacy.

_Economy_

Under the Yamato, the Japanese economy remained dependent on rice growing.

It was primarily a barter economy and taxes were paid in rice, cloth, and

other commodities by reasants who worked public lands. Beginning with the

seventh century, coins were imported from China to facilitate tax

collection. An attempt was made to mint Japanese coins, but rulers could

not resist the temptation to debase the local coinage and it fell out of

use.

_Religion and Culture_

New concepts were added to the ancient Japanese beliefs and rituals during

the Yamato period, including respect for clan ancestors and a mythology of

divine ancestry for the Yamato dynasty. Under the influence of Chinese

Buddhism propaganded by Forea during the sixth century, the Japanese

religion became more formalized as Shinto, the Way of the Kami. The kami

were an infinite number of natural spirits and powers that could be called

upon for aid or appeased when angered. The hierarchy of Shinto divinities

was defined and the mythology was written down. The rulers of Japan

descended from the sun goddess, the supreme Shinto deity.

Early Shinto was positive and concerned with the present, not the past or

an afterlife. It fostered a reverence for a natural universe that was seen

as good and ethical. Evil was identified with impurity and the unnatural.

Sincere honesty was the central virtue.

_Government_

During the Yamato period, tribal states of various sizes and power were

brought together gradually by a dynasty of Yamato clan rulers. The leader

of the Yamato in the second half of this period was known as the Daio, or

Great King. The power of the Yamato was expanded and strengthened through

blood ties within the clan, their apparent military supremacy, diplomacy,

and manipulation of the sun myth that bestowed divinity on their ancestry.

The different tribal groups or clans were the nobility or uji class.

Serving the uji was an occupational/ professional class called the be, who

worked as farmers, scribes, traders, and manufacturers. The lowest class

were slaves. Immigrants fit in among the uji and be, depending on their

skills and wealth.

In the seventh century, the Yamato transformed the government of Japan

based on influences from China. The Yamato sovereign became an imperial

ruler supported by court and administrative officials. The uji class was

stripped of land and military power, but given official posts and

stripends. This political system remained in effect until around 1200 A.D.

_Architecture_

The outstanding architectural achievements of the Yamato are their tombs.

These are mounds of earth in the shape of a keyhole if viewed from above.

The largest tombs are found in the Yamato region of Japan, and is further

evidence of power emanating from that locale. The Nintoku tomb on the

Osaka Plain rivals the Pyramids in size. The central tomb is 500 meters

long and 35 meters high. It is surrounded by three moats with intervening

belts of trees and covers 32 hectars (approximately 3.4 million square

feet). Stone burial chambers were evacuated in the earth below the central

tomb mound.

Tombs thought related to the imperial family are now controlled by a

government agency. Although some have been pillaged in the past, many

remain unexcavated.

_Military_

Based on the large numbers of warrior figures, weapons, and pieces of armor

found in burial tombs from this era, warfare was apparently a common

feature of Yamato culture. Despite the existence of a dominant ruler,

clan groups found reason for conflict. All adult men were available for

military service and were required to serve for at least one year. The uji

class provided the elite troops and officers for armies.

Warrior figures from tombs are shown wearing full body armor and visored

helmets. The most commonly found weapons are swords, spears, and bow

quivers. Horse figures are also found in abundance, suggesting the

existence of cavalry. The sudden appearance of horses in burial goods

around the fifth century has led to the hypothesis that Japan was invaded

by a cavalry army at that time. It is more probable that the horse was an

import that became a status symbol for the elite who were most likely to

receive a ceremonial burial. The elite uji class made up the cavalry of

the period because they could afford the horse and equipment.

_Legacy_

The Yamato period is remembered for the sun goddess mythology from which

all later emperors of Japan claimed divine ancestry. The Yamato period

also formalized the Shinto religion that would compete with imported

Buddhism to the present day. Most modern Japanese consider themselves

descentants of the Yamato. The great tombs spread about the countryside

are the most material legacy.

 

 

=====================================

XX. The Buildings

=====================================

ACADEMY

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and Stable.

Cost: 200 Wood

Hit Points: 350

Note: The Academy lets you train elite infantry units, including the

Hoplite, Phalanx, and Centurion. Researching Architecture increases the

hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The

academy was the Greek equivalent of a school. Students, usually only free

men and favored slaves, received an education at the academy. Subjects of

study included the typical fare of schools but also politics, athletics,

and military training. The most rigorous of the Greek academies were those

of Sparta, where boys were taken from their parents at an early age and

educated in a military environment. The academy prepared the individual

for service to the state as a citizen and as a soldier in the phalanx. In

one of the remarkable encounters of history, the future Alexander the Great

was educated at the Academy of Aristotle.

ARCHERY RANGE

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks.

Cost: 100 Wood

Hit Points: 350

Note: The Archery Range lets you train archers, including the Bowman,

Improved Bowman, Composite Bowman, Chariot Archer, Elephant Archer, Horse

Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer. You must build the Archery Range before

you can build the Siege Workshop. Researching Architecture increases the

hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The bow

was developed as a hunting weapon long before the first towns appeared and

was easily adapted to warfare. Because the bow allowed fighting from a

distance and from behind cover, archers did not have to fight face- to-

face with their enemy. As the first civilizations grew in size and their

armies grew correspondingly, formal training of archers was instituted.

As part of this training, bowmen practiced shooting on archery ranges to

improve accuracy.

BALLISTA TOWER

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched the

Watch Tower, upgraded to the Sentry Tower, upgraded to the Guard Tower,

researched Ballistics, and upgraded to the Ballista Tower.

Upgrade Cost: 1800 Food, 750 Stone

Cost: 150 Stone

Hit Points: 200

Attack: 20

Armor: -

Range: 7

Special: Fire Rate once every 3 seconds

Upgrade of: Guard Tower

Upgrade at: Granary

Note: The Ballista Tower is the ultimate tower. It has more attack

strength than the Guard Tower. You must research Ballistics before you

upgrade to the Ballista Tower. Towers are defensive structures that fire

missiles at enemy villagers and military units within range. Researching

Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time

of this tower. Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases

accuracy. Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.

The tower discovered on the wall at the ancient site of Jericho served

several purposes. It extended the visual range of lookouts that would be

watching for the approach of raiders and other visitors. An early warning

might have been the difference between a successful defense and the fall

of the town. The tower was a superior firing position for archery. Bowmen

shooting down had an advantage in range and penetration power of arrows

versus enemies shooting up. Enemies hiding at the bottom of the wall may

have remained visible to archers in the tower. The tower itself was an

independent bastion that could serve as a defensive position of last resort

if the wall was carried. The Ballista Tower was the ultimate defensive

fortification of the ancient era. It could withstand a lajor attack and

was equipped and designed to take a heavy toll on attackers.

BARRACKS

Age: Stone

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.

Cost: 125 Wood

Hit Points: 350

Note: The Barracks lets you train infantry, including the Clubman, Axeman,

Short Swordsman, Long Swordsman, and Legion. You must have built the

Barracks before you can build the Archery Range, Siege Workshop, Stable, or

Academy. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases

the construction time of this building. When the first armies came into

being, places were needed eventually to make weapons, store weapons, drill

troops, and house troops. The Barracks in Age of Empires represents these

places.

DOCK

Age: Stone

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.

Cost: 100 Wood

Hit Points: 350

Note: The Dock lets you create boats, including the Fishing Boat, Fishing

Ship, Trade Boat, Merchant Ship, Light Transport, Heavy Transport, Scout

Ship, War Galley, Trireme, Catapult Trireme, and Juggernaught. The Dock is

also where fishing vessels deposit food and trade vessels deposit gold from

trading. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases

the construction time of this building. The earliest boats were simply

tied up to rocks or trees on shore to take on or drop off cargo or were

physically pulled onto the beach. Later, wooden structures were built out

into the water to facilitate loading and unloading. Docks were also safer

for ships because ships could avoid being beached, which strained the hulls

and increased leaking. When the dock was extended beyond the shallows,

even larger ships could be tied up, farther improving efficiencies.

FARM

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.

Cost: 75 Wood

Hit Points: 50

Note: The Farm provides a reliable supply of food, which can be gathered by

a villager. Because Farms produce food at a fixed rate, assigning more

than one villager to work on a Farm does not increase its productivity.

Farms eventually go fallow, in which case you can build another one.

Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the

construction time of this building. Domestication, the Plow, and

Irrigation increase Farm production. The humble farm was the foundation of

the great civilizations of antiquity and most human societies since. The

farm was the technological advance that provided the large and dependable

supplies of food necessary for civilization to arise. Farming began when

edible seeds and fruits were preserved from one growing season and

systematically planted in prepared ground the following season. The plant

that resulted were nurtured and protected until the edible produce was

suitable for harvest. Important farming advancements in ancient times

included irrigation of rich but arid land, the plow that opened the soil

for receiving seeds, and the continual selection of seeds from the most

succesful plants that gradually improved food plant yields.

FORTIFICATION

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must heave built the Town Center, Granary, researched the

Small Wall, upgraded to the Medium Wall, and upgraded to the Fortification.

Upgrade Cost: 300 Food, 175 Stone

Cost: 5 Stone

Hit Points: 400

Upgrade of: Medium Wall

Upgrade at: Granary

Note: The Fortification is the ultimate wall. It has more hit points than

the Medium Wall. Walls are defensive structures that can be built around

your empire or important areas. Villagers and military units cannot move

through standing walls, however, they can attack the walls. Stone

Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis are

particularly effective for destroying walls. Researching Architecture

increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall.

The great civilizations of ancient times built ever- larger fortifications

to protect their important cities and frontiers. Herodotus reported that

the walls of Babylon were sufficiently thick that a chariot could be driven

on them around the city. Archaelogy indicates that large walls were not

invulnerable- every great ancient city appears to have been stormed

eventually- but only a large and well- equipped army could surmount them.

GOVERNMENT CENTER

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.

Cost: 175 Wood

Hit Points: 350

Note: The Government Center lets you build additional Town Centers, and

research technologies that improve your buildings and military units,

including Writing, Architecture, Engineering, Aristocracy, Alchemy,

Nobility, and Ballistics. Researching Architecture increses the hit points

and decreases the construction time of this building. The government

center was the administrative center of the town, village, city, kingdom,

or empire. It was often the palace of the strongman or king. It was here

that justice was dispersed, records kept, taxes collected and stored,

diplomacy conducted, and plans made. The development of the government

center spurred technology such as architecture through the commission of

public works and writing for the keeping of records. The expansion of

kingdoms led to a hierarchy of elites, often a nobility, that were needed

as middle managers when the expanse of lands exceeded the ruler's ability

to control directly. The provinces of the Persian Empire, for example,

were ruled like independent stores by satraps who owed tribute and

allegiance to the king in Susa.

GRANARY

Age: Stone

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center

Cost: 200 Wood

Hit Points: 350

Note: The Granary lets you build walls and towers, including the Small

Wall, Medium Wall, Fortification, Watch Tower, Sentry Tower, Guard Tower,

and Ballista Tower. You must research the Granary before you can built the

Market. Foragers and farmers can deposit food from Farms and forage sites

at the Granary instead of the Town Center. Researching Architecture

increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this

building. Following the advance of farming, humans faced the first time

the happy problem of how to safely store large quantities of food grains.

The Granary made it possible to preserve growing season surpluses for

consumption during winter months. The Granary was a central location where

grain could be warehoused, guarded, and distributed fairly as needed. The

need to protect food supplies was an early reason for building walls and

fortifications. Without protection, the surpluses in the Granary were

easily taken by raiders from nearby hunting and gathering groups.

GUARD TOWER

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and the Granary, and

researched Watch Tower, upgraded to Sentry Tower, and upgraded to Guard

Tower.

Upgrade cost: 300 Food, 100 Stone

Cost: 150 Stone

Hit Points: 200

Attack: 6

Armor: -

Range: 7

Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds

Upgrade of: Sentry Tower

Upgrade at: Granary

Note: The Guard Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range than

the Sentry Tower. The Guard Tower can be upgraded to the Ballista Tower.

Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and

military units within range. Researching Architecture increases the

construction time of this tower. Alchemy increases attack strength.

Ballistics increases accuracy. Woodworking, Artisanship, and

Craftsmanship, increase range. The tower discovered on the wall at the

ancient site of Jericho served several purposes. It extended the visual

range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and

other visitors. An early warning might have been the difference between a

successful defense and the fall of the town. The tower was a superior

firing position for archery. Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in

range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up. Enemies

hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in the

tower. The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as the

defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried. The Guard Tower

was a superior fortification, well- designed for holding out against attack

and for bringing weapons to bear on an attacker.

HOUSE

Age: Stone

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.

Cost: 30 Wood

Hit points: 75

Note: A House supports up to four villagers, military units, or boats. You

must have enough houses before you can create new units. If a House is

destroyed, you do not lose the units it supported, but you must build new

houses before you can build new villagers, military units, or boats.

Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the

construction time of this building. Shelter increased in importance when

humans expanded their range farther away from the equator in the wake of

the receding ice sheets and into climates of wide seasonal variation.

Growing hman populations quickly occupied the few natural shelters available

in these areas. The provision of man- made shelter made existence in

challenging and variable climates possible. Without houses, year- round

populations could not have increased beyond minimums.

MARKET

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary.

Cost: 150 Wood

Hit points: 350

Note: The Market lets you build Farms, pay Tribute to other civilizations,

and research technologies that improve your military units and the

effectiveness of your villagers, including Woodworking, Artisanship,

Craftsmanship, Stone Mining, Siegecraft, Gold mining, Coinage,

Domestication, the Plow, Irrigation, and the Wheel. You must build the

Market before you can build the Government Center or Temple. Researching

Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time

of this building. The specialization made possible by the development of

agriculture created the need for a place where craftsmen could meet to

barter their wares for those of others and for food. The Market in each

town and village was the place where barter and exchange took place. The

development of the Market marked the change from the small hunting/ foraging

group that shared its harvest to the much more complex economy that rose

with the rise of towns and cities. Specialization resulted in efficiencies

of scale and greater overall production fairly among the food providers

and specialists. The profit motive spurred innovation to increase

production. The potter, for example, looked for ways to make more and

better pots for the same effort to increase the amount of food that he

could obtain by trading pots.

MEDIUM WALL

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched

Small Wall, and upgraded to Medium Wall.

Upgrade Cost: 180 Food, 100 Stone

Cost: 5 Stone

Hit points: 300

Upgrade of: Small Wall

Upgrade at: Granary

Note: The Medium Wall has more hit points than the Small Wall. The Medium

Wall can be upgraded to the Fortification. Walls are defensive structures

that can be built around your empire or important areas. Villagers and

military units cannot move through standing walls; however, they can attack

the walls. Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the

Helepolis are particularly effective for destroying walls. Researching

Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time

of this wall. One of the earliest human setlements yet discovered is the

city of Jericho near the Jordan River in modern Isreal. This site from

7000 B.C. is remarkable for possessing a stone masonry wall, dry moat

around the wall, and a tower. At an astonishingly early date, Jericho

demonstrated that the ancients understood principles of fortification that

would carry forward essentially unchanged until the development of

gunpowder. The Medium Wall is a defensive structure built of stone or other

substantial construction to withstand a protracted attack.

SENTRY TOWER

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched

Watch Tower, and upgraded to Sentry Tower.

Upgrade cost: 120 Food, 50 Stone

Cost: 150 Stone

Hit points: 150

Attack: 4

Armor: -

Range: 6

Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds

Upgrade of: Watch Tower

Upgrade at: Granary

Note: The SEntry Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range than

the Watch Tower. The Sentry Tower can be upgraded to the Guard Tower.

Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and

military units within range. Researching Architecture increases the hit

points and decreases the construction time of this tower. Alchemy increases

attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy. Woodworking, Artisanship,

and Craftsmanship increase range. The tower discovered on the wall at the

ancient site of Jericho served several purposes. It extended the visual

range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and

other visitors. An early warning might have been the difference between a

successful defense and the fall of the town. The tower was a superior

firing position for archery. Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in

range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up. Enemies

hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in

the tower. The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as

the defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried. The Sentry

Tower was an improved fortification of strong materials and designed for

defense.

SIEGE WORKSHOP

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and Archery

Range.

Cost: 200 Wood

Hit Points: 350

Note: The Siege Workshop lets you build siege weapons, including the Stone

Thrower, Catapult, Heavy Catapult, Ballista, and Helepolis. Researching

Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time

of this building. The earliest fortifications yet discovered date from

7000 B.C., but evidence of siege weapons doesn't appear until much later.

We can assume, however, that siege equipment was in use long before the

first evidence that has survived. Evidence of a scaling ladder does not

appear until about 2500 B.C. The earliest record of a simple battering

ram comes from 1900 B.C. Amore powerful ram plus the undermining of walls

appears by 880 B.C. The mobile siege tower first appears one hundred years

later. The catapult was invented by Greeks in 397 B.C. There were no

further significant advances in siege engines until the advent of gunpowder.

Siege weapons were researched and built in siege workshops.

SMALL WALL

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and researched

Small Wall.

Research cost: 50 Food

Cost: 5 Stone

Hit points: 200

Research at: Granary

Note: The Small Wall is the wealest of the walls. Upgrades include the

Medium Wall and Fortification. Walls are defensive structures that can be

built around your empire or important areas. Villagers and military units

cannot move through standing walls; however, they can attack the walls.

Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis

are particularly effective for destroying walls. Researching Architecture

increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall.

STABLE

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks.

Cost: 150 Wood

Hit points: 350

Note: The Stable lets you train cavalry units, including the Scout, Cavalry,

Heavy Cavalry, Cataphract, Chariot, and War Elephant. You must build the

Stable before you can build the Academy. Researchinf Architecture increases

hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The

horses that survived the last Ice Age were relatively small animals unsuited

for riding or pulling. They were hunted out of existence in the Americas

and domesticated first for food on the steppes of Asia. Over many

generations of selective breeding, they grew large enough to be of use other

than as food. One issue that had to be resolved was how to harness them

without causing choking. Humans eventually learned to ride, first from the

rear, non- control position over the hips, and then from the forward

position that we are familiar with today. The first evidence of horses

being ridden appears in the second millenium B.C., although it is generally

accepted that they were ridden earlier in Asia. The Stable represents the

application of animals, primarily the horse, to warfare, first pulling

chariots and then carrying warriors. Detailed records survive from Assyria

and elsewhere related to the acquisition, training, equipping, and

employment of horses in battle.

STORAGE PIT

Age: Stone

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center

Cost: 120 Wood

Hit points: 350

Note: The Storage Pit lets you research technologies that improve the armor

and attack strength of military units, including Toolworking, Metalworking,

Metallurgy, the Bronze Shield, the Iron Shield, Leather Armor for Infantry,

Scale Armor for Infantry, Chain Mail for Infantry, Leather Armor for

Cavalry, Scale Armor for Cavalry, Chain Mail for Cavalry, Leather Armor for

Archery, Scale Armor for Archery, and Chain Mail for Archery. Hunters,

fishermen, and miners can deposit meat, fish, stone, wood, and gold at the

Storage Pit instead at the Town Center. Researching Architecture increases

the hit points and dcreases the construction time of this building. The

storage pit was the functional equivalent of the granary, but for meat

instead of grain. Storing meat presented special problems because it

spoiled so quickly and easily. Meat was generally stored by drying or

salting. The Storage Pit also represents the tool- and weapon- making

skill of hunting societies, leading eventually to metalworking, making war,

and armor making. In this capacity it also serves as a storehouse and

collection point for the raw materials of tool and weapon making: wood,

stone, and gold (representing all metals).

TEMPLE

Age: Bronze

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.

Cost: 200 Wood

Hit Points: 350

Note: The Temple lets you train Priests and research technologies that

increase their powers, including Polytheism, Mysticism, Astrology,

Monotheism, Afterlife, Jihad, and Fanaticism. Researching Architecture

increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this

building. The temple was a religious center. It was often the earthly

home or point of communication with a particular god or goddess. Priests

or priestesses in the temple acted as the servants of the resident god or

goddess and managed contact to and from the people, plus instruction,

rituals, petitions, and answers to questions. The most common form of

petition was the prayer. Another was the provision of gifts that supported

the temple and its servants. A less common petition was the sacrifice of

animals or even humans. The general belief of the time was that the more

elaborate a temple, the taller it was, and the more grand, the more disposed

the god or goddess would be to provide good weather, rainfall, and crop

yields, while keeping away pests, disease, and human invaders.

TOWN CENTER

Age: Stone

Prerequisites: You must already have a Town Center, and you must have built

the Granary, Market, and Government Center.

Cost: 200 Wood

Hit Points: 600

Note: The Town Center lets you create villagers and advance to the next

Age. It is also where villagers can deposit food, wood, gold, and stone.

The Town Center supports four villagers, military units, or boats. Priests

cannot convert Town Centers. After you build a Government Center, you can

build additional Town Centers to expand your civilization's dominance and

build Town Centers closer to distant resources. You can also replace your

Town Center if it is destroyed in combat. Researching Architecture

increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this

building. Allvillages and towns had an administrative center that was the

site of governmental power and leadership. In the earliest villages this

might have been the leader's home. Later it might have been the king's

palace. The center was often the place where important supplies, especially

food surpluses, were stored. Vessels for storing grain and oil were found

in the ruins of the Palace at Knossos of Crete. Some of the earliest

accounting records yet found were clay tablets left in long- forgotten

storerooms in ancient Sumeria and in Hittite cities. The destruction of the

town center usually meant the destruction of the town's governmental

infrastructure.

WATCH TOWER

Age: Tool

Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and researched

Watch Tower.

Research Cost: 50 Food

Cost: 150 Stone

Hit points: 100

Attack: 3

Armor: -

Range: 5

Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds

Research at: Granary

Note: The Watch Tower is the weakest of the towers. Upgrades include the

Sentry Tower, Guard Tower, and Ballista Tower. Towers are defensive

structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and military units within

range. Researching Architecture increases hit points and decreases the

construction time of this tower. Alchemy increases attack strength.

Ballistics increases accuracy. Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship

increase range. The Watch Tower was a simple tower, easily built, and

intended mainly to give early warning.

WONDER

Age: Iron

Prerequisites: Advance to the Iron Age

Cost: 1000 Wood, 1000 Stone, 1000 Gold

Hit points: 500

Note: Building a Wonder can be a victory condition that wins the game or it

can provide score points. You can build more than one Wonder. Researching

Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time

of this building. A Wonder is a massive structure, a crowning achievement

of technology, resources, and construction time for civilizations that build

one. Examples of historic ancient wonders are the Egyptian Pyramid, the

Great Wall of China, and the Athenian Acropolis. You must advance to the

Iron Age before you can build a Wonder. Priests cannot convert a Wonder.

=====================================

XXI. The Units

=====================================

Under Construction

=====================================

XXII. Extra Stuff

=====================================

_Cheats_

To enter the following cheats, you must press [Enter] anytime during

gameplay. Next, type the letters to the left, and press [Enter].

BIG BERTHA- Turns Heavy Catapults into Big Berthas

BIGDADDY- A black sports car with a rocket launcher

BLACK RIDER- Turns Horse Archers into Black Riders

COINAGE- 1000 gold bonus

DARK RAIN- Turns a Bowman into a Composite Bowman which turns into a tree

when not moving

DIEDIEDIE- All enemy units die

E=MC2 TROOPER- Creates a guy in a white suit with a slow- firing nuke gun

HARI KARI- You lose the game

HOMERUN- You win the game

HOYOHOYO- Priests are faster and stronger

ICBM- Your Ballistas and Helepolis have a 99+1 range, if I remember correctly

JACK BE NIMBLE- Your catapults and stone throwers fire villagers, cows, etc.

KILLX- Kill player X

NO FOG- Removes the fog of war

PEPPERONI PIZZA- 1000 food bonus

PHOTON MAN- Create a guy in a white suit with a quick- fire laser gun

QUARRY- 1000 stone bonus

RESIGN- You resign

REVEAL MAP- Reveals the map

STEROIDS- Buildings and units are created instantly

WOODSTOCK- 1000 wood bonus

 

=====================================

XXIII. Credits

=====================================

- Microsoft

- Ensemble

- GameFaqs and CJayC

- Scott Ong

- vgstrategies.about.com

- Cheat Code Central--http://www.cheatcc.com

=====================================

XXIV. Farewell!

=====================================

I hope you enjoyed the guide. If not, I got two words for 'ya, S*CK IT!!

This guide is Copyright 1999 Jim Chamberlin. You can't copyright facts,

only style. If you would like me to include something else in the guide,

then e- mail me at the address at the beginning of the guide. Make sure

you just didn't overlook it and missed it. Also there will also be a guide

for each of the groups, which will have information about which technologies

they have and which ones they lack. These won't appear for awhile, since

I'm extremely busy right now. If you would like to add anything, let me

know. This guide hasn't been proofread so there are mistakes in there, so

let me know if you find any. If you wish to post this to your site, ask me

first. Until Next Time...