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                        TTTT IIII RRRR


TOTAL IMMERSION RACING: GAME GUIDE

by
Jamie Stafford/Wolf Feather
FEATHER7@IX.NETCOM.COM




Initial Version Completed: November 27, 2002
FINAL VERSION Completed:   December 25, 2002

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================

CONTENTS
Spacing and Length
Permissions
Introduction
Getting Started
Career Mode
Challenge Mode
Single Race Mode
Time Trial Mode
Minato City Tips
General Tips
Braking
Cornering
Rumble Strips
Concrete Extensions
Tires
Drafting/Slipstreaming
Wet-weather Racing/Driving
Handling
Completely Subjective Section
Diagrams
Contact Information

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================

SPACING AND LENGTH
For optimum readability, this driving guide should be
viewed/printed using a monowidth font, such as Courier.
Check for font setting by making sure the numbers and letters
below line up:

1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

==============================================

PERMISSIONS
Permission is hereby granted for a user to download and/or
print out a copy of this driving guide for personal use.
However, due to the extreme length, printing this driving
guide may not be such a good idea.

This driving guide may only be posted on: FeatherGuides,
GameFAQs.com, f1gamers.com, Games Domain, PSXCodez.com,
Cheatcc.com, gamesover.com, Absolute-PlayStation.com,
GameReactors.com, RedCoupe, InsidePS2Games.com,
CheatPlanet.com, The Cheat Empire, a2zweblinks.com, Gameguru,
CheatHeaven, IGN, cheatingplanet.com, RobsGaming.com,
neoseeker.com, ps2fantasy.com, and vgstrategies.com.  Please
contact me for permission to post elsewhere on the Internet.

Should anyone wish to translate this game guide into other
languages, please contact me for permission(s) and provide me
with a copy when complete.

Remember:  Plagiarism in ANY form is NOT tolerated!!!!!

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================

INTRODUCTION
Total Immersion Racing is perhaps one of the best racing
games on PlayStation2 in relation to its price.  At only
$19.99 NEW upon release in the United States, Total Immersion
Racing certainly delivers A LOT for such a low cost.  It may
at times be best to compare Total Immersion Racing with Le
Mans 24 Hours, and it is generally a toss-up as to which is
the better game.

Total Immersion Racing allows players to enter the world of
ALMS-like (American Le Mans Series) sports car racing.  In
this game, there are three car classes (GT, GTS, and
Prototype); in most race modes, all three car classes compete
simultaneously despite their major differences in car power
and characteristics.  Since the player must begin Career Mode
(which is used to unlock many elements in the game) in GT
Class - the lowest of the three car classes - it is
imperative that the player learn to stay out of the way of
the faster, higher-class vehicles while still maintaining
some semblance of intra-class competitiveness; in this
respect, GT Class competition is more difficult, as Le Mans
winner Derek Bell has mentioned several times in covering
endurance races for Speed Channel.  Watching real-world
multi-class endurance races such as 24 Hours of Le Mans,
Petit Le Mans (10 hours or 1,000 miles, whichever comes
first), Rolex24 at Daytona, and 12 Hours of Sebring will
certainly put this into glorious perspective - especially
when in-car shots from the GT Class vehicles are used to show
the closing rate and overall tremendous speed of the faster
car classes... especially at nighttime.

Please note that some of the information in this guide comes
from my General Racing/Driving Guide, which can be found in
full exclusively at FeatherGuides
(http://feathersites.angelcities.com) and at GameFAQs
(http://www.GameFAQs.com/).

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================

GETTING STARTED
The opening movie is somewhat interesting, and certainly
worth watching at least once.   However, the opening movie is
extremely short - what begins with a lot of action ends with
leaving the player wanting for much, much more :-(

Once in the actual game itself, it is best to go directly to
Options and customize the game to the player's liking.
Specifically, the player should customize the controller
settings, and adjust the screen positioning and sound levels
if necessary.

Next, it is time to go back to the main menu and select
Single Race.  After choosing a car, transmission type
(automatic or manual), and race venue, it is time to head to
the circuit!!!  Since Total Immersion Racing uses primarily
real-world race venues, many have appeared previously in one
or more racing games (for example, Monza and Silverstone are
tradition-laden F1 circuits, and are included in every F1-
based game for the PlayStation/PSOne and the PlayStation2).
As such, a player with such prior familiarity with one or
more circuits may subconsciously start using the braking and
acceleration points from other games; this obviously will not
work very well, so driving adjustments will definitely need
to be made on the fly.  Fortunately, Practice includes a
solid racing line on the circuit to help the player to learn
the best racing line for the entire circuit; however, unlike
the racing lines used in the early license tests in the Gran
Turismo series, the racing lines in Total Immersion Racing
are NOT color-coded to assist in finding braking and
acceleration points around each race venue.

After competing in Single Race Mode several times, the player
should have a good general comprehension of the game's
physics engine and car handling capabilities for GT Class.
The same two cars available initially in Single Race Mode are
also the only two cars from which the player can choose upon
beginning in Career Mode; this knowledge can indeed 'carry
over' to Career Mode to help the player gain a slight
'advantage' over the competition.

==============================================

CAREER MODE
Career Mode is where the main focus of the gameplay is
located in Total Immersion Racing.  Also, progressing through
Career Mode unlocks bonus items, including new cars and new
race venues.  Note that if playing at Amateur Level, there is
never an opportunity to change car set-ups; depending on the
car used in a Career Mode season, this can be a tremendous
disadvantage for the player, although the player will likely
learn (rather quickly) to safely handle virtually ANY type of
car.

In Career Mode, the player begins as a complete racing
newcomer.  Initially, only two teams will approach the player
to offer a season-long driving contract.  Each of these teams
has a different car, and both cars are also initially-
available in Single Race Mode; the player should have already
participated in at least two races in each of these cars in
Single Race Mode to obtain a good feel for each vehicle, as
this is really the only determining factor in which team the
player chooses with which to begin Career Mode.

Before and/or after many races, the team manager will have a
few comments for the player concerning the race.  During the
race, the team manager will also make comments to the player
via the team radio.  These in-race comments generally pertain
to intra-class position (which is also indicated in a big
white number at the top-left of the screen; the overall
inter-class position is the smaller number to the right of
the big white number), but can also reveal who the rivals are
in a given race.

The competitors in Total Immersion Racing all have their own
personalities, which can include anger if the player bumps
them or cuts them off, and can include long-running grudges
against the player.  Therefore, it is best to always drive
cleanly, keep a good distance from all other cars, and
DEFINITELY never get in the way of higher-class cars; this
latter is especially important in vehicles in the GT Class,
as they are by far the slowest vehicles on the circuit.

The goal of each season is (obviously) to win that season's
class championship.  This is based upon a points system which
essentially follows FIA style for each class of competition:
   First    10 points
   Second   6 points
   Third    4 points
   Fourth   3 points
   Fifth    2 points
   Sixth    1 point
Note that in each class, the car setting the fastest race lap
will be awarded an additional point; this is the only real
difference from the FIA style of points distribution.  Also,
since there are only six cars per class of competition, each
driver is guaranteed at least one championship point per
race.

Performing well in a season (especially if the player is able
to win that season's class championship) will open more
opportunities with more teams - this can include one or more
opportunities to drive cars in the next-higher car class for
other teams.  Some bonus cars can be unlocked, while many
teams will instead approach the player with an offer of a
test drive; if the player successfully passes the test drive,
then the team will offer a season-long drive in that car with
that team for the next season.

The GT season in Career Mode consists of five races of three
laps each.  As expected, vehicles from all three car classes
(GT, GTS, and Prototype) are all on the circuit at the same
time.  All cars start each race based upon qualifying lap
times regardless of vehicle class, so it is possible for
there to be one or two GTS vehicles at the back of the grid
mixed in with the GT cars; otherwise, at only three laps
each, GT Class cars are unlikely to have any encounters with
cars from either the GTS Class or the Prototype Class, as the
races simply are not long enough for the GT Class cars to get
lapped (unless the player has a REALLY bad race).  Winning a
GT Class championship will present test drives in both GT
Class and GTS Class with various teams; the player will also
have the option to remain with the same team in GT Class
competition for another season.

The GTS season in Career Mode consists of seven races of four
laps each.  As expected, vehicles from all three car classes
(GT, GTS, and Prototype) are all on the circuit at the same
time.  All cars start each race based upon qualifying time
regardless of vehicle class, so should the player elect to
NOT qualify, the player will start at the very back of the
starting grid BEHIND the GT Class cars (and NOT at the end of
the GTS Class vehicles).  Winning a GTS Class championship
will resent test drives in all three car classes (Prototype,
GTS, and GT Classes) with various teams; the player will also
have the option to remain with the same team in GTS Class
competition for another season.

The Prototype season in Career Mode consists of nine races of
five laps each; this season also introduces wet-conditions
racing.  As expected, vehicles from all three car classes
(GT, GTS, and Prototype) are all on the circuit at the same
time.  All cars start each race based upon qualifying time
regardless of vehicle class, so should the player elect to
NOT qualify, the player will start at the very back of the
starting grid BEHIND the GT Class cars (and NOT at the end of
the Prototype Class vehicles).

There is nothing beyond the Prototype Class season, so once
this has been won, the player can essentially roam about with
any of the teams offering rides for the following seasons in
any of the available car classes.

==============================================

CHALLENGE MODE
Challenge Mode is essentially a miniaturized version of
Career Mode.  Here, the player is given a car to race in a
short 'season' against five other IDENTICAL cars (usually;
endurance-style challenges and a few other challenges use a
full grid with all three car classes represented).  The same
rules of Emotions, points, etc., apply here as in Career
Mode.

Initially, only the Audi TT-R (GT Class) is available in
Challenge Mode.  Winning its mini-season of three rounds
unlocks the Audi TT-R in Single Race Mode and makes the next
challenge available.  This sequence is then repeated ad
nauseum until all challenges in Challenge Mode have been
completed (won).

There are thirty-seven challenges in total, although
initially only the first thirty challenge icons can be seen
(either in full color or grayed out).  Challenge Mode does
not include levels of difficulty, so the player can make any
desired car set-up adjustments in any of the challenges.

On a VERY important note, there is NO opportunity to save
game progress within a Challenge Mode series.  This can be
rather important with the longer Challenge Mode series.  To
ensure that the player has enough time to participate in a
series, add the number of laps in the series (this is always
given at the Challenge Select screen) and multiply by 2
minutes 30 seconds.  This equation will cover GT Class racing
at most race circuits; GTS Class and Prototype Class
competition will obviously be faster (up to forty seconds
faster per lap for Prototype Class racing, depending on the
circuit in question).

Until the final challenges, Challenge Mode is not really
difficult at all, although those players who do not tune the
cars for better handling performance (especially through and
exiting corners) will find themselves doing A LOT of
countersteering.  The Race Engineer can fix this to some
extent, but much of the car's performance will still rely
quite heavily upon the player's driving skills.

Of the thirty-seven challenges, Traffic (Challenge #27) is
unique in that the player and another competitor in the
Prototype Class BOTH start at the very back of an eighteen-
car multi-class field; in this challenge, there are ONLY TWO
ENTRIES in the Prototype Class.  The idea is to keep
finishing first in the Prototype Class, which is obviously
made easier should the player be able to quickly clear all
the traffic and lead the entire field.  Also, there is NO
opportunity to qualify for the races in this challenge,
meaning that the player will ALWAYS start from the final
position.

For player reference, here are all thirty-seven challenges in
Challenge Mode, including all of the circuits used (and the
number of laps per circuit) for each challenge:

   Challenge Name         Circuit                     Laps
   --------------------   -----------------------     ----
   Abt Audi TT-R          Springfield                 2
                          Hockenheim                  2
                          Silverstone                 2
   GT Cup                 Silverstone                 2
                          Monza                       2
                          Hockenheim                  2
                          Springfield Short           3
   Noble                  Silverstone                 3
                          Hockenheim                  3
                          Springfield Short           4
   British vs. German     Hockenheim                  3
                          Silverstone                 3
                          Hockenheim Motodrome        4
   Qualife                Monza                       3
                          Talheimring                 3
                          Silverstone                 3
   Euro Cup               Monza                       3
                          Silverstone International   4
                          Talheimring                 3
                          Hockenheim                  3
   BMW M3                 Silverstone                 3
                          Monza                       3
                          Hockenheim                  3
   German GT              Hockenheim                  10
   Sprint Cup             Silverstone International   3
                          Hockenheim Motodrome        3
                          Springfield Short           3
                          Rockingham Oval             3
   Sintura                Rockingham Oval             4
                          Silverstone International   4
                          Talheimring                 3
   GTS Cup                Silverstone                 3
                          Monza                       3
                          Hockenheim                  3
                          Springfield                 3
                          Talheimring                 3
   Panoz Esperante        Rockingham                  3
                          Springfield Short           4
                          Monza                       3
   Storm Cup              Monza                       3
                          Silverstone                 3
                          Hockenheim                  3
   Vemac                  Talheimring                 3
                          Hockenheim                  3
                          Springfield                 3
   Sebring Cup            Sebring                     4
                          Sebring                     4
   Lister Storm           Hockenheim                  3
                          Silverstone International   3
                          Talheimring                 3
   Trans Atlantic         Silverstone                 15
                          Sebring                     15
   McLaren F1             Monza                       3
                          Hockenheim                  3
                          Talheimring                 3
                          Rockingham Oval             5
   British Cup            Silverstone International   4
                          Rockingham                  3
                          Silverstone                 2
   Far Eastern            Minato City                 25
   BMW V12                Monza                       3
                          Talheimring                 3
                          Hockenheim                  3
   Prototype Cup          Monza                       4
                          Sebring                     4
                          Hockenheim                  4
                          Rockingham                  4
                          Talheimring                 4
                          Minato City                 4
   Dome                   Minato City                 4
                          Silverstone                 3
                          Hockenheim                  3
   High Speed             Rockingham Oval             8
                          Talheimring                 4
                          Hockenheim                  4
   Panoz LMP              Hockenheim                  4
                          Talheimring                 4
                          Sebring                     3
   Fast and Furious       Monza                       1
                          Springfield                 1
                          Silverstone                 1
                          Talheimring                 1
                          Hockenheim                  1
                          Minato City                 1
                          Sebring                     1
                          Rockingham                  1
   Bentley                Monza                       3
                          Silverstone                 3
                          Hockenheim                  3
                          Sebring                     3
   Traffic                Monza                       3
                          Springfield                 3
                          Silverstone                 3
                          Minato City                 3
                          Sebring                     3
                          Rockingham                  3
   Audi R8                Sebring                     3
                          Hockenheim                  3
                          Silverstone                 3
                          Monza                       4
   Audi vs. Bentley       Silverstone                 5
                          Hockenheim                  3
   Pilbeam                Monza                       3
                          Silverstone International   4
                          Talheimring                 3
                          Hockenheim Motodrom         5
                          Rockingham Oval             5
   Sebring 50             Sebring                     50
   Lister LMP             Monza                       4
                          Silverstone International   4
                          Rockingham                  4
   Bonus Car              Monza                       50
   Intercontinental       Sebring                     4
                          Minato City                 4
                          Monza                       4
   Rockingham Oval        Rockingham Oval             50
   Rockingham             Rockingham Oval             6
                          Springfield                 3
                          Minato City                 3
                          Rockingham                  4

Note that the Rockingham Challenge is an open-wheel
challenge, with all participants using Rockingham Champ Cars
(CART-style cars).  Winning the Rockingham Challenge unlocks
the Rockingham Champ Car for use in all race modes.

==============================================

SINGLE RACE MODE
In Single Race Mode, the player or players can pick any of
the unlocked cars to use at any of the unlocked race venues
and participate in races ranging from a single lap to twenty-
five laps in length.  Most race venues and vehicles are
unlocked by winning in Career Mode and/or in Challenge Mode.

==============================================

TIME TRIAL MODE
Time Trial Mode is a good place for the player to experiment
with car set-ups and/or learn the intricacies of each race
venue.  Only those cars and circuits which have been unlocked
can be used in Time Trial Mode.

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================

MINATO CITY TIPS
Minato City is the without question the most difficult race
venue in Total Immersion Racing.  A fictitious street circuit
supposedly set in Japan, the most important thing for
'conquering' the Minato City street circuit is to establish
and maintain a strong rhythm as quickly into a race as
possible.  This is especially important for the 25-lap GTS
Class Endurance in Challenge Mode.

The Minato City race venue is essentially the Monaco of Total
Immersion Racing.  The Minato City street circuit is
primarily comprised of corners, most of which are TIGHT
right-angle corners; these are primarily connected by VERY
short straightaways.  This circuit configuration means that
there is virtually NO use for top-end speed at the Minato
City race venue; instead, cars should be set up for optimal
cornering ability and especially FAST acceleration when
powering out of the many tight corners.

Whereas Total Immersion Racing is generally friendly toward
aggressive drivers when it comes to cornering, Minato City is
definitely NOT friendly to those with aggressive driving
styles.

==============================================

GENERAL TIPS
Save game progress and game settings at every opportunity.

Total Immersion Racing does not use rules; in other words,
there are no official repercussions (such as ten-second
penalties or immediate disqualifications) for unsportsmanlike
or dangerous driving, shortcutting corners, etc.  Many
corners (especially chicanes) do have barriers to ensure that
all drivers (including the player) keep to the racing line,
and there are plenty of sand traps and gravel traps to
significantly slow cars which go off-line at many corners,
but this is really the extent of the implementation of any
'rules' in Total Immersion Racing.  Note, however, that it is
DEFINITELY possible (and highly likely) to anger the CPU-
controlled competition through blocking, swapping paint,
etc.; some drivers may even develop a deep-rooted grudge
against the player and take extreme measures to attempt to
knock the player's vehicle out of the way or foil the
player's chances of winning a race and/or a championship in
the given car class.

On a similar note, Total Immersion Racing does not include
car damage.  Generally, this is because car manufacturers
adamantly oppose having their vehicles seen in anything but
prime, pristine condition.  Further, with so many vehicle
manufacturers represented in the game, only ONE would need to
refuse to allow their cars to have damage modeling for the
entire concept to be eliminated from the game.

The PlayStation2 features 256 levels of button sensitivity
(for the X, Square, Circle, and Triangle buttons), and Total
Immersion Racing makes definite use of this feature.
Pressing harder on the accelerator button (set to the X
button as the default) will provide faster acceleration;
pressing harder on the brake button (set to the Square button
as the default) will provide harder braking.  However, truly
fast acceleration and truly hard braking will very quickly
tire the player's thumb (and potentially the player's entire
right hand).  Therefore, it may be best to take a break for
ten to fifteen minutes after every two or three races; this
will allow the player's thumb and hand to relax.

Players can expect some FIERCE racing competition in ALL
classes.  This can be especially tricky when racing in the
Prototype Class, as while the player is fending off
intraclass competitors, the player may well be weaving
through GT Class or GTS Class cars which are all having a
rather nasty battle between themselves.

Higher-class cars are more difficult to drive cleanly
(especially through and exiting corners) than lower-class
cars.  Specifically, higher car classes tend to have
'squirrelier' cornering characteristics.  This can be
remedied to some extent by using proper tuning; however,
there are never any tuning options available at the Amateur
difficulty of racing in Total Immersion Racing.

When racing in higher-class cars (especially cars in the
Prototype Class) and coming upon lower-class backmarkers, it
is important to get through these slower vehicles as quickly
as possible.  Backmarkers in any form of racing tend to slow
down the faster cars, and racing is certainly about speed.
Also, the more backmarkers that can be positioned between the
player and the following intra-class competitor, the harder
and longer that competitor will need to work to get to the
player... and this can be just enough time to secure a
(comfortable) race victory.  Also, with several backmarkers
between the player and the following intra-class competitor,
the less pressure is placed upon the player, which generally
results in cleaner, safer driving; this is because drivers
under fierce pressure in a battle for position/points are
much more prone to making a mistake, such as going wide
through a corner and accidentally letting the competitor
through on the inside line.

Auto racing is largely dependent upon racing line, braking
zones, braking strength, and acceleration strength.  Total
Immersion Racing very much places these four prime elements
of auto racing into play.  Certainly, a car's set-up can
affect a player's race, but the way that the player uses
these four areas to make the most of a car's set-up is key to
success... moreso than in many other auto racing games due to
the construction of the physics engine.

Try to keep out of the sand and gravel which line the inside
or outside of many corners at most race venues.  Dropping
even a single wheel into this 'kitty litter' will slow the
car tremendously - even to as slow as 30MPH/48KPH.  This is
not so bad when racing at Amateur difficulty, as it is rather
easy to maintain a large lead or to catch up with the rest of
the cars in the class.  However, at higher levels of
difficulty, slowing to such slow speeds for even a single
second can drastically change the outcome of a race.

Note that when selecting a team to join in Career Mode,
'Cars' has nothing to do with the number of (different) cars
that the player can choose to drive for that team.  Instead,
if the number indicated is two or higher, then the player
will have one or more teammates.  If the number is one, then
the player will be the only driver for that team.  This could
play a significant role in the decision-making process, as
teams with only one car/driver can obviously focus 100% of
their effort toward that single car/driver, whereas teams
with two or more cars/drivers must split their efforts.

Note that when selecting a team to join in Career Mode,
'Total Points' should be divided between the number of 'Cars'
for the team.  Across two seasons, a team with 64 points and
1 car will generally average a better finish than a team with
only 88 points and two cars.  (Note that across all car
classes and teams, EVERYONE begins with zero Total Points
when the player starts a new career in Career Mode.)

During Career Mode races, a star may appear next to the
player's best lap time.  This star indicates that the player
currently holds the fastest lap time for the race.  This is
important, because the car with the fastest lap time for the
race (in each car class) earns an extra championship point.
These extra championship points can be quite handy at the end
of a season, as they can could the difference between final
positions in a class championship... and could also mean the
difference between finishing second in a class championship
and WINNING that championship.

Should the player win the GT Class championship in the first
season of competition, there will be several offers to test
drive cars in GTS Class and GT Class for various team, plus
the player will be given the chance to remain with the same
team for another season.  It is probably best to remain with
the same team for a second season, as this will allow the
player to become even more familiar with the circuits used in
the GT Class season (as they will also be used in higher-
class seasons) as well as with the physics engine of Total
Immersion Racing.  However, a player with VERY strong
confidence in her or his racing abilities and solid
experiential knowledge of the game's physics parameters may
instead elect to move on to the GTS Class.

When participating in Prototype Class, it is quite possible
that at longer circuits (such as Sebring International
Raceway), the player will need to contend with GT Class cars
in races of four or more laps.  Another few laps beyond that,
should a race be so long, the player will need to contend
with GTS Class cars.  If the player has angered any of the GT
Class and/or GTS Class drivers during Career Mode or earlier
in a Challenge Mode series (especially if those drivers hold
a grudge against the player), they could make passing quite
difficult, despite the general 'courtesy' of pulling aside
and allowing the faster, higher-class cars to pass by easily.
Therefore, when approaching these backmarkers, it is a good
idea to ensure that the Emotions icons are activated (this is
toggled on and off via the L1 button by default) to get some
'advance warning' on approach and before attempting to make
the actual pass(es).

The player may wish to always have Emotions activated.  This
will make it much easier to spot competitors far ahead and/or
far behind the player's car, due to the height of the
Emotions icons.  Unfortunately, however, each race begins
with Emotions deactivated, so the player must always remember
to activate the Emotions icons.

It IS possible to take a corner so quickly that a car goes up
on two wheels.  However, this is a bit difficult to do, which
makes actually FLIPPING a vehicle virtually impossible to do
in this game.

Since an extra championship point is awarded for holding the
fastest lap at a given race, the 'perfect season' includes
both winning ALL the races AND setting the fastest lap at ALL
the races.  Oftentimes, winning ALL the races in a season is
fairly easy, although some defensive driving may be required
in the final lap(s) as the other drivers start feeling
desperate.  However, setting the fastest lap for even ONE
race is sometimes rather difficult.

Many corners in the game have distance-to-corner markers
which are small signs placed near the pavement on the outside
of an upcoming corner; some race venues also use cones or
pylons to help mark corners.  In many racing games, if these
cones, pylons, or distance-to-corner markers are run over,
they are destroyed and/or knocked far away from the circuit
itself, and are never replaced.  However, Total Immersion
Racing will replace these important elements, so that they
are back in place the next time the player comes to that
section of the circuit.  Therefore, in two-player mode, there
is no point in trying to knock away the distance-to-corner
markers in an effort to fool the opponent into changing the
braking zone and thus potentially making a critical racing
mistake.

Total Immersion Racing is generally quite friendly to
aggressive drivers, especially when it comes to making passes
entering/through/exiting corners.  The Minato City race
venue, however, is rather the opposite.

Amazingly, the cones and pylons in the game will GREATLY slow
cars when hit.  While it may be impressive to watch the
pylons and cones fly through the air or skim across the
ground, it is best to avoid them at all costs.

At Rockingham Oval and when on the oval portion of the
Rockingham stadium circuit, KEEP OFF THE APRON!!!!!  Putting
the left-side tires on the apron at high speeds will almost
always unbalance the car, causing it to suddenly pitch to the
left.  Those familiar with NASCAR racing (or its pavement-
based feeder series) will already be quite familiar with the
results when this situation occurs in real-world racing;
interestingly, in Total Immersion Racing, the skidding of the
car in this situation sounds VERY similar to its real-world
counterpart.

Of the many race venues in Total Immersion Racing, only five
are initially available.  The others can be unlocked for ALL
gameplay modes by winning at those venues the FIRST time they
appear in either Challenge Mode or Career Mode; failure to
win at race venues in this manner means that these circuits
will not be available to the player in Single Race Mode and
Time Trial Mode.  Fortunately, it is NOT a requirement to
also win the series/seasons in which these circuits first
appear in order to unlock these race venues.

Cars can be unlocked for all race modes by winning their
appropriate challenges in Challenge Mode.  Some cars can also
be unlocked by performing well in Career Mode.

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================

BRAKING
The first step in driving fast is knowing when, where, and
how much to slow down (braking).  In some games, a brake
controller can be acquired or purchased, allowing the player
to customize the brake strength by axle or by adjusting the
bias of the brakes toward the front or the rear of the car.

The use of a brake controller will affect the braking zone,
as will other factors.  Specifically, the car's speed on
approaching a corner, the amount of fuel in the car at a
given moment, the drivetrain of the car, the weight of the
car, and even the car's center of gravity can all affect the
braking zone.  Similarly, the driving conditions - sunny,
overcast, damp, wet, icy, snowy etc. - will affect the
braking zone for each corner (as well as the car's ability to
attain high speeds).

Except for purely arcade-style games, the braking zone will
differ somewhat for each car depending upon its strengths and
weaknesses.  It certainly helps for the player to try a Free
Run or a Time Trial (if these modes exist in a given game) to
learn the circuit(s) - including the braking zones.

When looking for braking zones, try to find a particular
stationary object near the entry of each corner; it helps
tremendously if this object is far enough away from the
circuit that it will not be knocked over during a race.  To
begin, try using the brakes when the front of the car is
parallel with the chosen stationary object.  If this does not
slow the car enough before corner entry or if the car slows
too much before reaching the corner, pick another stationary
object on the following lap and try again.

Whenever changes are made to the car - whether to the brake
controller or to other aspects of tuning and/or parts - it
would be a good idea to go back into Free Run mode and check
that the braking zones still hold; if not, adjust as
necessary using the method in the paragraph above.

For those races which include fuel loads, the car will become
progressively lighter during a race.  The lesser weight can
often mean a slightly shorter braking zone; however, if tire
wear is excessive (especially if there have been numerous
off-course excursions), that might dictate a longer braking
zone.

Cars with a higher horsepower output will inherently attain
faster speeds, and will therefore require a longer braking
zone than cars with a lower horsepower output.  Try a
Volkswagon New Beetle, a Mini Cooper, a Dodge Viper, a Panoz
Esperante GT-1, a Corvette C5R, and an F-2002 (all in
stock/base configuration) along the same area of a circuit
and note how their braking zones differ.

A final note on braking: To the extent possible, ALWAYS brake
in a straight line.  If braking only occurs when cornering,
the car will likely be carrying too much speed for the
corner, resulting in the car sliding, spinning, and/or
flipping.  (Some games purposely do not permit the car to
flip, but a slide or spin can still mean the difference
between winning and ending up in last position at the end of
a race.)

If nothing else, players should strive to become of the
'breakers' they possibly can.  This will essentially force a
player to become a better racer/driver in general once the
player has overcome the urge to constantly run at top speed
at all times with no regard for damages to self or others.
Also, slowing the car appropriately will make other aspects
of racing/driving easier, especially in J-turns, hairpin
corners, and chicanes.

==============================================

CORNERING
Ideally, the best way to approach a corner is from the
outside of the turn, braking well before entering the corner.
At the apex (the midpoint of the corner), the car should be
right up against the edge of the pavement.  On corner exit,
the car drifts back to the outside of the pavement and speeds
off down the straightaway.  So, for a right-hand turn of
about ninety degrees, enter the corner from the left, come to
the right to hit the apex, and drift back to the left on
corner exit.  See the Diagrams section at the end of this
guide for a sample standard corner.

For corners that are less than ninety degrees, it may be
possible to just barely tap the brakes - if at all - and be
able to clear such corners successfully.  However, the same
principles of cornering apply: approach from the outside of
the turn, hit the apex, and drift back outside on corner
exit.

For corners more than ninety degrees but well less than 180
degrees, braking will certainly be required.  However, for
these 'J-turns,' the apex of the corner is not the midpoint,
but a point approximately two-thirds of the way around the
corner.  J-turns require great familiarity to know when to
begin diving toward the inside of the corner and when to
power to the outside on corner exit.  See the Diagrams
section at the end of this guide for a sample J-turn.

Hairpin corners are turns of approximately 180 degrees.
Braking is certainly required before corner entry, and the
cornering process is the same as for standard corners:
Approach from the outside, drift inside to hit the apex
(located at halfway around the corner, or after turning
ninety degrees), and drifting back to the outside on corner
exit.  See the Diagrams section at the end of this guide for
a sample hairpin corner.

If there are two corners of approximately ninety degrees each
AND both corners turn in the same direction AND there is only
a VERY brief straightaway between the two corners, they may
be able to be treated like an extended hairpin corner.
Sometimes, however, these 'U-turns' have a straightaway
between the corners that is long enough to prohibit a
hairpin-like treatment; in this case, drifting to the outside
on exiting the first of the two corners will automatically
set up the approach to the next turn.  See the Diagrams
section at the end of this guide for a sample U-turn.

FIA (the governing body of F1 racing, World Rally
Championship, and other forms of international motorsport)
seems to love chicanes.  One common type of chicane is
essentially a 'quick-flick,' where the circuit quickly edges
off in one direction then realigns itself in a path parallel
to the original stretch of pavement, as in the examples in
the Diagrams section at the end of this guide.  Here, the
object is to approach the first corner from the outside, hit
BOTH apexes, and drift to the outside of the second turn.

FIA also seems to like the 'Bus Stop' chicane, which is
essentially just a pair of quick-flicks, with the second
forming the mirror image of the first, as shown in the
Diagrams section at the end of this guide.  Perhaps the most
famous Bus Stop chicane is the chicane (which is actually
called the 'Bus Stop Chicane') at Pit Entry at Spa-
Francorchamps, the home of the annual Grand Prix of Belgium
(F1 racing) and the host of The 24 Hours of Spa (for
endurance racing).

Virtually every other type of corner or corner combination
encountered in racing (primarily in road racing) combines
elements of the corners presented above.  These complex
corners and chicanes can be challenging, such as the Ascari
chicane at Monza.  See the Diagrams section for an idea of
the formation of Ascari.

However, in illegal street/highway racing, the positioning of
traffic can 'create' the various corners and corner
combinations mentioned here.  For example, weaving in and out
of traffic creates a virtual bus stop chicane (see the
Diagrams section at the end of this guide).  Slowing may be
necessary - it often is - depending on the distance between
the vehicles.  See the Sample Circuit Using Some of the Above
Corner Types Combines in the Diagrams section at the end of
this guide; note that this is a diagram for a very technical
circuit.

At some race venues, 'artificial chicanes' may be created by
placing cones and/or (concrete) barriers in the middle of a
straightaway.  One such game which used this type of chicane
is the original Formula1 by Psygnosis, an F1-based
PlayStation game from 1995, which used this at Circuit
Gilles-Villeneuve along Casino Straight (shortly after
passing the final grandstands at the exit of Casino Hairpin).

One thing which can change the approach to cornering is the
available vision.  Blind and semi-blind corners require
ABSOLUTE knowledge of such corners.  Here is where gamers
have an advantage over real-world drivers:  Gamers can
(usually) change their viewpoint (camera position), which can
sometimes provide a wider, clearer view of the circuit, which
can be especially important when approaching semi-blind
corners; real-world drivers are obviously inhibited by the
design of their cars and racing helmets.  Great examples of
real-world blind and semi-blind corners would be Mulsanne
Hump at Le Mans, Turns 14 and 15 at Albert Park, and each of
the first three corners at A1-Ring.

Also important to cornering - especially with long, extended
corners - is the corner's radius.  Most corners use an
identical radius throughout their length.  However, some are
increasing-radius corners or decreasing-radius corners.
These corners may require shifting the apex point of a
corner, and almost always result in a change of speed.
Decreasing-radius corners are perhaps the trickiest, because
the angle of the corner becomes sharper, thus generally
requiring more braking as well as more turning of the
steering wheel.  Increasing-radius corners are corners for
which the angle becomes more and more gentle as the corner
progresses; this means that drivers will generally accelerate
more, harder, or faster, but such an extra burst of speed can
backfire and require more braking.  See the Diagrams section
at the end of this guide for sample images of a decreasing-
radius corner and an increasing-radius corner.

For traditional road racing circuits, increasing-radius and
decreasing-radius corners may not be too much of a problem;
after several laps around one of these circuits, a driver
will know where the braking and acceleration points are as
well as the shifted apex point (should a shift be required).
However, for stage-based rally racing, where the roads are
virtually unknown and the driver knows what is ahead only
because of the navigator's instructions (which - based upon
notes - may or may not be absolutely correct), the unknown
can cause drivers to brake more often and/or more heavily.
For rally-based games, such as the Need for Speed: V-Rally
series (PlayStation/PSOne) or for World Rally Championship
(PlayStation2), there is often specialized vocabulary used:
'tightens' generally designates that a corner has a
decreasing radius, whereas 'widens' or 'opens' indicates that
a corner has an increasing radius.  This need for 'extra'
braking is also tempered by the fact that in much of rally
racing, corners are either blind or semi-blind, due to trees,
buildings, cliffs, embankments, and other obstacles to clear
vision all the way around a corner.

One particularly interesting aspect of cornering is one which
I honestly do not know if it works in reality (I am not a
real-world racer, although I would certainly LOVE the chance
to attend a racing school!!!), but which works in numerous
racing/driving games I have played over the years.  This
aspect is to use the accelerator to help with quickly and
safely navigating sharp corners.  This works by first BRAKING
AS USUAL IN ADVANCE OF THE CORNER, then - once in the corner
itself - rapidly pumping the brakes for the duration of the
corner (or at least until well past the apex of the corner).
The action of rapidly pumping the accelerator appears to
cause the drive wheels to catch the pavement just enough to
help stop or slow a sliding car, causing the non-drive wheels
to continue slipping and the entire car to turn just a little
faster.  Using this rapid-pumping technique with the
accelerator does take a little practice initially, and seems
to work best with FR cars; however, once perfected, this
technique can pay dividends, especially with REALLY sharp
hairpin corners, such as at Sebring International Raceway.

==============================================

RUMBLE STRIPS
Depending on car set-up and weather conditions, rumble strips
(sometimes also called 'alligators') can be either useful or
dangerous.  The purpose of rumble strips is to provide a few
extra centimeters of semi-racing surface to help keep cars
from dropping wheels off the pavement, which can slow cars
and throw grass and other debris onto the racing surface
(which makes racing a little more dangerous for all involved,
especially in corners).  Generally, rumble strips are found
on the outside of a corner at corner entry and corner exit,
and also at the apex of a corner - these locations provide a
slightly better racing line overall.

If a car is set with a very stiff suspension (i.e., there is
not much room for the suspension to move as the car passes
over bumps and other irregularities in the racing surface),
hitting rumble strips can cause the car to jump.  Even if
airborne for only a few milliseconds, at speed, it could be
just enough so that the driver loses control of the car.
Obviously, if one or more wheels are not in contact with the
ground, the car is losing speed, which could be just enough
of a mistake for other cars to pass by, and the lack of
contact with the ground could result in excessive wheelspin
which risks to flat-spot the tire(s) when contact is regained
with the ground.

When the racetrack is damp or wet, however, it is generally
best to avoid using the rumble strips.  Since rumble strips
are painted (usually red and white), ANY amount of moisture
will make the rumble strips extremely slick as the water
beads on the paint, so that hitting a rumble strip in the
process of cornering (especially at the apex of a corner)
will cause the tire(s) to lose traction and often send the
car spinning.

==============================================

CONCRETE EXTENSIONS
Similar to rumble strips are concrete extensions.  These are
generally (much) wider than rumble strips, and may or may not
be painted (at FIA-approved F1 circuits, for example, these
are generally painted green).  Also, whereas rumble strips
protrude slightly above the level of the racing surface,
concrete extensions are at the same level as the racing
surface.

Concrete extensions can be used in the same manner as rumble
strips.  However, if painted, concrete extensions should be
avoided for the same reasons listed above for rumble strips n
the event of wet or damp racing conditions.

Players should note that in some games - especially where
challenges or license tests are involved - concrete
extensions are often NOT designated as part of the official
track, resulting in an 'Out of Bounds' designation.  This is
true, for example, in EA Sports' F1-based series (F1 2000, F1
Championship Season 2000, F1 2001, and F1 2002) and in the
Gran Turismo series.

==============================================

TIRES
As a 2000/2001 Michelin commercial campaign (shown in the
States) stated, the tires are the only safety features on the
road which actually TOUCH the road.  Implicit in this series
of commercials is the message that special care must be given
to tires.  In the case of Michelin, this means that choosing
Michelin tires is far safer than choosing any other brand of
tires (note that this series of commercials had been running
since LONG before the Firestone/Ford controversy erupted in
2000).

In the case of racing/driving games, this same implicit
message - that the tires are the only safety features on the
road which actually TOUCH the road - means that special care
must be given to the tires to keep them from wearing out too
quickly.  Of course, some games (usually arcade-style games,
such as the Ridge Racer series) do not use tire wear.  Other
games do offer an array of tires, but simply to provide
higher levels of pavement grip as higher levels of tires are
acquired or purchased (such as Tokyo Xtreme Racer Zero).
Other games have races which are simply too short to make
tire wear a viable issue; an example of this type of game
would be Downforce.  In general, tire wear is not an issue in
rally racing games.

Some games simply provide Levels of tires.  Here, the
assumption is that Level 1 tires provide the least amount of
pavement grip, with higher levels providing more pavement
grip than previous levels.  However, many games (especially
simulation-based games such as Le Mans 24 Hours and the Gran
Turismo series) offer several choices of actual tire
compounds.

For non-racing cars intended for mundane street use, Normal
tires are standard issue.  While Normal tires may work well
on the highway and on city streets, they are virtually
worthless in an actual racing situation.  Normal tires do not
provide adequate grip to be effective in racing.  This is
most noticeable when trying to corner at relatively high
speeds with a vehicle with Normal tires.

Simulation tires supposedly give a more accurate feel of what
it is like to drive a racing-tuned car.

Sports tires are a little better than Normal tires.  When
first playing a racing/driving game which offers Sports
Tires, one of the best things you can do to improve your
chance of success is to upgrade to Sports Tires as soon as
possible.  This will improve cornering ability, and provide a
little more grip for acceleration (especially from a standing
start).

Racing tires come in an array of 'flavors,' with each tire
compound giving a varying level of grip countered by an
inverse level of durability.  Not all racing games offer such
a variety of tire compounds from which to choose.
   Super-slick    Least grip, maximum durability
   Slick
   Medium-slick
   Medium         Average grip, average durability
   Medium-soft
   Soft
   Super-soft     Maximum grip, least durability
Note that in some games, Slick and Super-slick are more
likely to be called Hard Tires.

Dirt Tires are required for dirt-based rally events.  In some
racing games (primarily Gran Turismo 2 and Gran Turismo 3),
some non-racing cars can also be equipped with Dirt Tires -
and in some cases can easily outperform rally-dedicated
vehicles if given proper tuning considerations.

Intermediate Tires are often used in games with varying
weather effects, such as Le Mans 24 Hours.  Whereas Normal,
Sport, Super-soft, Soft, Medium-soft, Medium, Medium-slick,
Slick, and Super-slick Tires are designed specifically for
dry racing conditions, Intermediate Tires are generally used
when the pavement is damp.  A good indicator as to whether
Intermediate Tires or Wet Tires (see the following paragraph)
should be used is whether there is a large spray of water -
often called a 'rooster tail' - coming up from underneath the
car at high speeds on the straightaways.  If there is not a
rooster tail, or if the rooster tail is fairly small, then
Intermediate Tires should be a good choice.  Unfortunately,
EA Sports has never included Intermediate Tires in its F1-
based games, despite the fact that Intermediate Tires are
used in real-world F1 racing; Intermediate Tires very much
came into play, for example, at the 2002 Grand Prix of Great
Britain.

Wet Tires are designed for truly wet conditions.  A good
indicator as to whether Intermediate Tires (see the preceding
paragraph) or Wet Tires should be used is whether there is a
large spray of water - often called a 'rooster tail' - coming
up from underneath the car at high speeds on the
straightaways.  If there is a large rooster tail, then Wet
Tires are definitely needed.

Some racing games have an on-screen tire indicator.  This can
range from a set of brackets or an image of the car with the
tires highlighted in a particular color to a small line with
an arrow indicating the condition of the tires.  If the color
system is used with a bracket or an image of the car with the
tires highlighted, then the following colors are often used
to indicate tire conditions:

   At the beginning of a race and immediately after a Pit
   Stop, the tires are brand new ('stickers') and need to be
   brought up to temperature as quickly as possible so that
   they can provide the best possible grip.  This is noted by
   dark blue tire indicators.  During this period, sharp
   turns or extremely-fast cornering will almost certainly
   cause the car to slide, and perhaps even spin.  However,
   slides and spins will bring the tires up to optimum
   temperature even faster, so you may wish to purposely
   induce slides when entering corners, IF the tire
   indicators are dark blue.

   Once the tire indicators are green, the tires have reached
   their optimum performance temperature, thus providing you
   with the best possible grip for that set of tires.  The
   amount of time the tire indicators remain in the green
   color range depends on your driving style, the amount of
   time off-course (in the grass or sand) or banging the
   barriers (or other cars), and the initial selection of
   tire compound.  Note that in some games, new tires put on
   in a Pit Stop and tires on the car at the beginning of a
   race start with green indicators (bypassing the 'stickers'
   condition mentioned above).

   As the tire indicators switch to yellow, you need to start
   taking better care of your tires.  You may experience
   slides when cornering.

   Orange tire indicators are a warning to get to Pit Lane to
   change tires as soon as you possibly can.  You will be
   sliding around a lot more.

   Red tire indicators are effectively Game Over.  Unless you
   have a HUGE (multi-lap) lead or a significant horsepower
   advantage over your competitors, you will not have a
   chance of winning the race, especially if you stop to
   change tires.  Essentially, you are driving on pure ice,
   and the only way to 'reliably' get around the circuit is
   to ride the rails (barriers) alongside the circuit.

   Note that not all four tire indicators will be the
   same color at all times.  If even ONE tire shows a red
   indicator, you need to limp back to Pit Lane to change
   tires as soon as possible.

Even if a game does not have a tire wear indicator, players
will inherently KNOW when the tires are worn due to the
amount of slipping around, primarily when cornering and
during extreme braking and acceleration.  Some games, such as
F1 2002, will have team radio communications which state that
the tires are wearing down.

If available in a given game, traction control affects tire
durability.  With a low traction control setting, the tires
will spin for a while (especially on a standing start or when
under strong acceleration out of a corner) before they
actually grip the pavement; the friction of the pre-grip
spinning wears away at the tires.  With a high traction
control setting, wheel spin is reduced or even eliminated,
thus extending the durability of the tires.

One of the best ways to reduce the durability of the tires is
to corner at high speeds.  The game manual for Gran Turismo 3
gives an excellent, highly-detailed description of what
occurs with the tires when cornering; this explanation should
be read at least once by EVERY serious gaming racer.  In
short, cornering at high speeds causes a high percentage of
the tire to be used for speed, and a low percentage to be
used for the actual cornering.  To combat this and thus
extend the durability of the tires, try to brake in a
STRAIGHT line before reaching a turn, thus reducing overall
speed and providing a lower percentage of the tires to be
used for speed, and a greater percentage used for cornering.

Note that if the percentage of the tires used for speed is
too high compared to the percentage used for cornering, the
car will slide and/or spin.

Perhaps one of the best things to do to learn to take care of
the tires is to play a racing game (such as F1 2002) in which
vehicle damage is available.  Playing with the damage option
on will certainly make the effects of worn tires quite
visual.  As tire grip wears away (due to a long stint,
multiple off-track excursions, etc.), the car may begin
sliding around, potentially resulting in car damage (broken
and missing parts), which REALLY makes driving a nightmare at
high speeds.  Many racing/driving games do not make this
damage visibly clear, so it is easy to underestimate the
condition of the tires; similarly, without any car damage
(generally due to licensing concerns, but also because damage
modeling requires MUCH more from the game programmers), cars
in these games can simply 'ride the rails' around corners
when tire conditions are less than optimal.

==============================================

DRAFTING/SLIPSTREAMING
One very useful racing technique is drafting, also known as
slipstreaming.  In some forms of motorsport, especially in
oval track racing such as NASCAR and IRL, drafting is
essential to making passes; NASCAR even raises drafting to an
art form at its restrictor plate races by forcing cars to
draft off each other simply to stay in contact with the
leaders.

Drafting works because of the aerodynamic vacuum which occurs
behind a vehicle moving at a high rate of speed.  As air
flows around Car A, there is an area around which the air is
forced as it flows off Car A's rear end.  If Car B can get
close enough to Car A, its front end can get into this vacuum
area.  Since vacuums prefer to fill their void with anything
possible, Car B is drawn closer and closer to Car A.  If the
driver of Car B does not do anything or does not react fast
enough, then Car B will eventually crash in to the back of
Car A.  However, once sufficient vacuum-assisted momentum has
been gained, Car B can pull out to the side, exiting the
vacuum with added momentum/speed, and rocket past Car A.

By using Car A's natural high-speed vacuum in this manner,
Car B will emerge from the draft with a major advantage in
terms of speed without ever pressing harder on the
accelerator.  Often, drafting results in an additional
5MPH/8KPH over Car A; while this may not seem like a lot of
extra speed, it is often enough to make a successful pass.

Drafting is a great tactic for oval and tri-oval courses.
However, its effectiveness at road racing venues is
essentially limited to just long straightaways.  In this
case, it is highly important that Car B safely make the
drafting pass well before the braking zone for the next
corner, as the added speed will require earlier and/or
stronger braking.  Also, cars with variable downforce -
especially cars with wings, such as CART and F1 cars - seem
better able to make use of the draft.

Specific to F1 2002, there is a draft/slipstream meter on the
right side of the screen during races and other events (such
as challenges) in the game.  This can be useful, with the
meter lighting up from bottom to top as Car B approaches the
rear end of Car A.  When the meter is fully lit, the player
should quickly pull out of the draft/slipstream or risk an
accident.

==============================================

WET-WEATHER RACING/DRIVING
Almost everything written to this point in the guide focuses
solely upon dry-weather racing/driving conditions.  In fact,
most racing/driving games deal ONLY with dry-weather
conditions.  However, simulation-based games will include at
least a few wet-conditions situations.  This can range from
Gran Turismo 3 - which uses two circuits (hosting a total of
eight races between Simulation Mode and Arcade Mode) where
the roadway has A LOT of standing water, as if the races take
place just following a major prolonged downpour - to F1 2002
- where in most situations, players can purposely select the
desired weather conditions for a given race.

In wet-weather racing/driving conditions, it is IMPERATIVE to
use tires designed for wet-conditions usage.  For example, in
F1 2002, in a full 53-lap race at Monza, I purposely tried
running as long as I could with Dry Tires, then switched to
Rain Tires when I could no longer handle the car's inherent
sliding about... and my lap times instantly dropped by more
than five seconds.

In games which offer Intermediate Tires, such as Le Mans 24
Hours, the period when the racing circuit is simply damp (at
the start of a period of rain, or when the circuit is drying
after a period of rain) can be tricky in terms of tires.
Intermediate Tires are certainly best for these racing
conditions, but the time in Pit Lane spent changing to
Intermediate Tires can mean losing numerous race positions,
especially if the weather conditions change again a short
time later and require another trip to Pit Lane to change
tires yet again.

Tires aside, simulation-style games simply will not allow a
player to drive a circuit the same way in wet-weather
conditions as in dry-weather conditions.  The braking zone
for all but the gentlest of corners will need to be extended,
or else the car risks to hydroplane itself off the pavement.

Throttle management is also key in wet-conditions racing.
Due to the water on the circuit, there is inherently less
tire grip, so strong acceleration is more likely to cause
undue wheelspin - which could in turn spin the car and create
a collision.  If a car has gone off the pavement, then the
sand and/or grass which collect on the tires provide
absolutely NO traction at all, so just the act of getting
back to the pavement will likely result in numerous spins.

In general, cornering is more difficult in wet conditions
than in dry conditions.  To help ease this difficulty in
cornering, simulation-style games will sometimes allow the
player to change the car's tuning during a race (if not, the
player will be forced to try to survive using the tuning set-
up chosen before the beginning of the race).  Tuning is
covered in more detail in another section below, but the main
aspect to change for wet-weather conditions is to raise the
downforce at the front and/or rear of the car; this will help
improve cornering ability, but will result in slower top-end
speed and slower acceleration.  If the car's brake strength
can be adjusted, it should be lowered, as strong braking will
raise the likelihood of hydroplaning off the pavement;
lowering brake strength will also mean an additional
lengthening of the braking zone for all but the gentlest
corners of a given circuit.

When the circuit is damp or wet, rumble strips and concrete
extensions (which are usually painted) should be avoided as
much as possible.  The water tends to bead on the paint used
for rumble strips and concrete extensions, making them
incredibly slippery, especially if a drive wheel is on a
rumble strip or concrete extension while the player is in the
process of turning the car; this will cause undue wheelspin
in that particular drive wheel, usually resulting in the car
spinning.

==============================================

HANDLING
Independent of any tuning options, many racing games use
Handling to differentiate performance among cars.  A common
misperception is that cars with better a higher Handling are
inherently better than cars with a lower Handling score.
This is not necessarily the case.

ALL aspects of a car's performance need to be varied from
person to person.  For example, the exact same car set-ups I
offered for F1 2001 and F1 2002 work fine for me, but
terribly for many others (although they are generally good
benchmarks for others to use to begin tuning the cars to
their needs).  The reason is that driving styles vary from
one person to another; even for the same person, driving
style is likely to vary as more and more experience is gained
within the racing/driving genre.

Handling is no different from tuning, horsepower, etc., when
it comes to driving style.  A car which has a high Handling
score will be much easier to turn in general... but for
someone with a REALLY fine sense of cornering and D-
pad/analog-stick/racing-wheel control, a car with a high
Handling score may actually corner TOO well.  On the other
hand, a young teenager playing racing/driving games in
preparation for learning how to drive real cars may in fact
need or prefer cars with a higher Handling score BECAUSE they
are easier to turn.

Handling is ESPECIALLY important in those racing/driving
games which do not have (m)any tuning options.  Tuning can
generally be used to make a 'bad' car 'acceptable' or a
'good' car 'great' in terms of handling (tuning can be used
conversely as well).  For example, raising the front and/or
rear downforce on a car will improve cornering, which can
make a car with a moderate Handling score perform much better
at more-technical racing venues.  If tuning options do not
exist (such as in games in arcades), Handling scores become
VERY important.

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================

COMPLETELY SUBJECTIVE SECTION
Favorite Cars
   Audi TT-R GT (Good solid handling even before changing car
      set-up)
   BMW V12 LMR Prototype (Beautiful engine sound; fishtails
      just enough to keep things interesting)
   Lister Storm GTS (Excellent Power and Acceleration;
      fishtails just enough to keep things interesting
      without truly sacrificing handling)
   Panoz Esperante GTR1 (Good handling even before changing
      car set-up; nice, powerful engine sound)
   Panoz LMP-1 Evo Prototype (Excellent sound and paint
      scheme; handles VERY well even before changing car
      set-up)

Favorite Circuits
   Hockenheim (The original long circuit has plenty of class,
      tradition, and beautiful foresty scenery; VERY high
      speeds can be attained here, even topping 200MPH/320KPH
      entering the first chicane)
   Hockenheim Motodrome (This short circuit truly IS 'short
      and to-the-point,' yet retains the full characteristics
      of The Stadium)
   Monza (Very high-speed circuit, little braking needed)
   Rockingham Oval (Pure speed, NO braking...)
   Springfield Short (Cuts out about 1/4-distance of the full
      Springfield circuit; this allows some great speeds
      through the remaining, gentler corners)

Favorite Class
   Prototype (I love speed!!!!!  These cars have EXCELLENT
      power and truly require some skill to drive well,
      especially when cornering and/or navigating large packs
      of backmarkers.)

Least Favorite Circuits
   Minato City (Virtually NO visibility around corners; TOO
      narrow in most sections for clean racing to occur;
      absolutely BRUTAL in Challenge Mode)

Worst Game Defects
   Inability to exit a challenge without advancing to the
      following race venue first
   Inability to save game progress within a challenge

Worst Inherent Handling (MUST AVOID in Amateur difficulty)
   Dome S101 Prototype
   Lister LMP Prototype
   Pilbeam LMP Prototype
   Vemac 320R GTS

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================

DIAGRAMS
This section contains the diagrams referred to earlier in the
guide.

Ascari Chicane (at Monza):
   *
    *
     *
      *
       *
        ***
           *
            *****************

Bus Stop Chicane (Variant I - Wide Chicane):
   *******************           *******************
                      *         *
                       *********

Bus Stop Chicane (Variant II - Narrow Chicane):
   *******************           *******************
                      ***********

Decreasing-radius Corner:
   ->*******************
                          *
                             *
                               *
                                *
                                *
                               *
   <-*************************

Hairpin Corner:
   ->*****************
                      *
   <-*****************

Increasing-radius Corner:
   ->**********************
                            *
                             *
                             *
                            *
                          *
   <-*******************

J-turn
   *******************
                      *
                     *
                    *
                   *

Quick-flicks (Variant I - Wide Chicane):
   *************
                *
                 *************

Quick-flicks (Variant II - Narrow Chicane):
   *************
                **************

Sample Circuit Using Some of the Above Corner Types Combined:
    ******|******       *****
   *      |->    *     *     *
    *          **   ***     *
     *        *   **        *
    *         *  *    *     *
   *         *  *    * *     ********
   *          **    *   *            *
   *               *     ************
    *******       *
           *******

Standard Corner:
   *******************
                      *
                      *
                      *
                      *
                      *
                      *
                      *
                      *

U-turn:
   ->*****************
                      *
                      *
                      *
   <-*****************

Virtual Bus Stop Chicane:
   +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
                     Car #1   ->->->->->->   Car #3
   Player Path: ->->->->->->->   Car #2   ->->->->->->->
   +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

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==============================================
==============================================

CONTACT INFORMATION
For questions, rants, raves, comments of appreciation, etc.,
or to be added to my e-mail list for updates to this driving
guide, please contact me at: FEATHER7@IX.NETCOM.COM; also, if
you have enjoyed this guide and feel that it has been helpful
to you, I would certainly appreciate a small donation via
PayPal (http://www.paypal.com/) using the above e-mail
address.

To find the latest version of this and all my other
PSX/PS2/DC/Mac game guides, visit FeatherGuides at
http://feathersites.angelcities.com/

==============================================
==============================================
==============================================



=======================================================================
                   Wolf Feather    Jamie Stafford
=======================================================================
Just as there are many parts needed to make a human a human, there's a
remarkable number of things needed to make an individual what they are.
                - Major Kusanagi, _Ghost in the Shell_
=======================================================================
   What isn't remembered never happened. - _Serial Experiments Lain_
=======================================================================